Political Resolition 2024

Present Situation and Our Tasks

Intensification of the major contradictions of the world imperialist system especially the contradiction among imperialist powers in the backdrop of slow down affecting all the major economies marks the present international situation. War in Ukraine and increasing conflict between US and China are hotspots of this growing contention which has engulfed the whole world directly or due to its effects. Danger of world war has emerged though a large number of countries have yet not taken sides. Palestinians’ heroic struggle against genocidal Zionist rulers of Israel backed by US imperialism has emerged as a symbol of resistance of oppressed nations and people against imperialism. It has galvanized people in the oppressed countries and democratic people in the imperialist countries.

In India, ruling fascist RSS-BJP are intensifying their drive to impose fascist state over the country. This is being attempted in the backdrop of deepening socio-economic crisis in the country and worsening conditions of the people. Ruling dispensation is increasing attacks on the workers and peasants signifying sharpening of the contradiction between alliance of imperialism and domestic reactionary ruling classes and the masses. On the other hand contradictions among sections of ruling classes are sharpening. Intensification of these contradictions are manifesting in growing resentment of the people paving way for the outbursts of the people’s struggles in different parts of the country.

International Situation

  1. Since the explosion of world financial economic crisis in 2008, the economic crisis of the imperialist system is continuing and deepening. The factors that led to that explosion have not been addressed rather they continue to operate. And since then, global economy has been going from one crisis to another, every new depth of the crisis continuing the old and adding new problems.
  2. Present deepening of global economic crisis is marked by slowdown of all major economies of the world. At the time of 2008 explosion of global financial economic crisis, China and some other economies had continued to grow at high rate and the crisis had worst affected those economies which had larger share of income from financial sector as a major part of their GDP e.g., USA and UK. That explosion had also affected those economies which were dependent on exports to these markets or were dependent on the investment from these countries. European Union is in recession, Chinese growth has slowed down and US has mainly debt driven economic growth with increasing danger of slipping into recession.
  3. It is important to note that economic growth since 2008 has been mainly debt driven. Now the global debt is over 305 trillion dollars i.e., nearly 50% more than it was in 2008. The global economy has also registered nearly 50% growth over this period i.e. from 2008 to 2022. If we put it in absolute terms the cumulative increase in the global GDP over the last 14 years i.e., all increase taking 2008 as base, and compare it with increase in global debt, the latter has contributed nearly two third to the cumulative growth. This shows that most of the growth has been driven by debt. This also means that interest payment on the debt has continued to increase and debt servicing absorbs a large portion of the values produced all over the world. Capital is mopping up not only the surplus of the present but also of the future, jeopardizing future of coming generations. With the economic slowdown affecting major economies, debt servicing burden has become even more ominous. The enabling of monopoly capital to utilize the public deposits (in financial institutions) and later ending the separation of commercial banking from investment banking and insurance (in US and also in other countries) has led to exposure of working people’s savings to vagaries and plunder of monopoly sharks.
  4. At the root of this deepening crisis is the basic contradiction of capitalism i.e., between increasing capacity of production and lack of commensurate increase in effective demand. Capital accumulation is occurring at a much faster pace than the growth in the purchasing power of the people. In plain words it means that increasingly greater part of the values produced all over the world is appropriated by the owners of the capital and less and less part is going to the producers of these values i.e., labour force. This basic contradiction of capitalism is being reproduced at the global level at much more ferocious pace devastating whole continents. It also demonstrates the increasing difficulties of the backward countries, more so of the Least Developed countries. They are notable to accumulate enough capital as their natural resources and produce of their labour are increasingly robbed by the imperialist countries.
  5. Another important feature of the present situation, which has been a long time in the making, is the shift in actual production away from western imperialist countries resulting in de-industrialization of the economy of imperialist countries. This trend got particularly sharp after restoration of capitalism in China and dissolution of the Warsaw Pact led by the then Soviet Union and of the Soviet Union itself, ushering in a uni-polar world dominated by US imperialism and end of contradiction between capitalism and socialism as rival world systems ceasing to exist as a major contradiction in the world, albeit temporarily. Western imperialist powers led by US imperialism which needed to increase exploitation of cheap labour of third world countries to maximize their profits, saw an opportunity to do so in that uni-polar world. They retained research and development in their own territories along with financial services. International agreement on Intellectual Property Rights ensured their continued domination over production process in third world countries as well as accruing of huge payments of royalty while WTO framework ensured almost unbridled repatriation of profits earned in oppressed countries to imperialist countries. Control over financial institutions provided the framework to control the production in different countries. Between 1982 and 1990, almost a quarter of the sums previously invested in factory plant and equipment in the private real economy was shifted to the financial, insurance, and real estate sectors. The process was to gain further momentum in years to come. By 1980, share of developing countries in the world industrial employment had risen to 52% and by 2012 share of developing countries in world industrial employment had risen to 83%. World’s total workforce grew from 1.9 to 3.1 billion between 1980 and 2007. Of these people, 73 percent were from developing countries, with China and India accounting for 40 percent. Tools of financial domination of western imperialism over the world e.g., World Bank and IMF were sharpened and WTO was added as another weapon in their armory. In this “end of history” which was actually a euphemism for end of class struggle, and driven by the insatiable greed to extract more and more surplus from the labour power of the world, imperialist countries gradually shifted more and more parts of their chain of production to then third world countries, relatively underdeveloped countries. However this shift was not uniformly distributed over the third world but conditioned by socio-economic and political factors. In this period rate of accumulation of capital further increased as cheap labour in third world countries helped the monopoly capital groups extract more surplus from labour with drastic reduction in wages paid. It should be kept in mind that 96% of MNCs have their headquarters in just eight western countries. This shift of production to third world countries has not been to the benefit of most of third world countries. In 1970-89, average annual per capita GDP of developing countries (excluding China, Hongkong and Taiwan) was 6% of the per capita GDP of 67 developed countries. Between 1990 and 2013 it had dropped to 5.6%. Share of 48 LDCs went down over the same period from 1.5% to 1.1%.
  6. Shifting of production i.e. industrial globalization has made economic activity more fragmented, yet vast quantities of profits still flow to a few countries of the developed capitalist world i.e. fragmentation of production and centralization of profits. On the other hand it only shows more glaringly the parasitic character of imperialism. However, parasitic, decaying, moribund nature of capitalism does not mean that there is no rapid growth in some sectors. As Lenin stated in Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism: “It would be a mistake to believe that this tendency to decay precludes the rapid growth of capitalism. It does not. ..… On the whole, capitalism is growing far more rapidly than before; but this growth is not only becoming more and more uneven in general, its unevenness also manifests itself, in particular, in the decay of the countries which are richest in capital (England).”

Intensification of Major Contradictions of Imperialism

  1. In the backdrop of this deepening crisis, all major contradictions of imperialism i.e. contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries, nations and peoples, contradiction between labour and capital especially in imperialist countries and contradiction among imperialist countries and monopoly groups especially among the former, have been intensified. While the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and peoples has continued to occupy the central place among the contradictions of imperialism, of late contradiction among imperialist powers has intensified sharply. Danger of world war, which had receded considerably in the period of uni-polar world, has re-emerged and danger of nuclear war has also resurfaced.
  2. At the root of sharpening of this contradiction among imperialist powers and its intensification to the military stage, is US imperialism’s drive to restore uni-polar world and drive by China and Russia to consolidate multi-polar world i.e. not allowing US imperialism to dominate the world. In the aftermath of deep recession starting from 2008 and military setbacks to US imperialism in Iraq and Afghanistan, trends towards multi-polarity got strengthened. By the time we held our last Congress in 2013, multi-polarity had become the dominant trend and we had likewise concluded in our Political Resolution. China had emerged as the biggest challenger to US hegemony. It had become the biggest manufacturer of goods in the world by 2009. China not only developed its economy taking share from the surplus extracted from Chinese workers, but also increased its military might, modernizing its armed forces. Russia had recovered from its Yeltsin years, when Russia capitalists took help from USA to dismantle bureaucratic capitalism, largely due to income from energy sources – oil and gas. Russia under Putin refocused on improving their military which had been degraded in the earlier period. Thus emerged two challengers with economic and military might, unlike Japan and Germany in 1980s and 90s who had developed economies but lacked military might.
  3. Though multi-polarity had become dominant trend, but US primacy in world commerce and finance continued. Dollar remained the currency of world trade and reserve currency of the world. Domination of dollar in world trade and as global reserve currency enabled US to export its crisis to other countries and browbeat other countries from challenging US domination of their regions. US remained the biggest military power in the world. Its military expenditure far surpassed other countries. So the base for its drive for uni-polar world (world hegemony) remained. Despite military setbacks and faced with aftermath of great recession, US pursued its global hegemony by other means during Obama period, formally giving up unilateralism of Bush period. Under Trump, US isolationism and protectionism dominated, shunning globalization. This blow to globalization is connected to rise of multi-polar world.
  4. One difference from the earlier challenges to US hegemony in this period is the challenger itself. After restoration of capitalism in China, Chinese rulers bided their time and hid their strength. China has developed economic and military might over the last four decades. From the factory of MNCs mainly of the USA it has joined the race of developing higher technology. Moreover, the world is not as sharply divided economically as in the period of two superpowers. Varying degrees of development in third world countries and growing crisis of imperialism hitting its centre i.e., imperialist countries, has reduced US led west’s ability to blackmail and dictate to other countries. The course of US drive to restore US hegemony of uni-polar era will be decided by economic factors, particularly whether the main competitor, China, can continue to develop higher technologies withstanding sanctions and cut-off by US from this field. Or, in other words, whether China has reached the ‘break-out’ stage. On the other hand, US is finding it difficult to replace China as a vital link in the global supply chain and also a growing market. Though USA is trying to diversify the supply chain, but is finding it difficult to replace the production of scale in China. US cannot bring all production back to US due to sheer cost of production and setting up other centres of production will take time. On the other hand, deepening crisis of US economy and growing protectionism makes it difficult to lure other countries with exports to US markets. Moreover, with production centre shifting to China, the energy producers look to China to sell their energy products. Obama Admn. with its ‘Pivot to Asia’ identified the main challenger as China. Trump further intensified attacks against China especially in economic arena.
  5. Under Biden Admn. US launched drive for re-establishing world hegemony. He took up from where Bush had left. He took Europe as Centre of contradiction of imperialist world labeling Russia as the main enemy. Russia on the other hand, had recovered and had started flexing its military muscle. Driving Georgian Army from South Ossetia and Abkhazia (2008), Russia intervened militarily in Syria (2015), turning the tide of war in that country, stabilizing Assad regime there. This torpedoed US design to reshape the middle-east. Russia has been intent on recovering its influence in old Soviet space as well as in global sphere. It forged close ties with China to withstand US economic pressure. Russia went on to resist US drive for eastward expansion of NATO.
  6. US embarked on eastward expansion of NATO to consolidate its hold over East European states. This had become all the more necessary after US staunch ally UK exited from European Union (Brexit in 2016). Biden Admn. tried to achieve many objectives by fomenting war in Ukraine. Ukraine had deep divisions over closer ties to European Union (and US) and Russia. Yanukovich was overthrown in Ukraine in February 2014 in a US orchestrated coup called Euromaidan. This resulted in widespread opposition especially in Russian dominated eastern and southern parts. Russia took over Crimea which had been transferred to Ukraine in 1955 when both were parts of the then Soviet Union. There was Russia backed rebellion in Donbas regions and a third of Donbas formed separate Admn. Minsk Accords resulted in ceasefire. These agreements had stipulated Donbas region to be part of Ukraine but as autonomous regions. Ukraine signed and France and Germany guaranteed these Agreements as Ukraine was then militarily not prepared for war.US and NATO armed Ukraine, trained its military, set up chemical weapons’ labs and generally prepared her for war. Russia regarded Ukraine as part of its sphere of influence, gave ultimatum to US and NATO in December 2021 to reach security agreement guaranteeing Ukrainian neutrality. With Western powers’ refusal to even discuss these issues, Russia invaded Ukraine on February 24, 2022.
  7. With US retreat from Afghanistan in defeat, the contradictions among imperialist powers and their contest over world imperialist order has broken out on this new ground. Defeat in Afghanistan shut the US out of direct military presence in vast Eurasian space leaving the field for Russia and China. On the other hand, this defeat also compelled US imperialism to confront its rivals in its drive to re-establish world hegemony. As on several earlier moments in world history, Afghanistan once again played the role of a check on a hegemonic empire.
  8. While Russia sought to invade Ukraine into submission or at least bring under its control Russian speaking southern and eastern parts of Ukraine, US tried to kill many birds with this stone. It sought to degrade Russian military power which it termed as inflicting “strategic defeat” on Russia, bring West European powers to their knees and using east European countries, erstwhile members of Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union, to dominate the European Union and to isolate China. In a single stroke it targeted Europe and China both. US sought to dominate Eastern Europe which Rumsfield had called New Europe with its resources and ability to control Russia and thereby the vast Eurasia. West European powers’ trade with Russia especially its cheap energy imports was disrupted and they were forced to buy costly American energy plunging the whole continental Europe into downturn and recession. This also helped US military industrial complex by selling its weapons to European countries. China was sought to be given an apparently ‘lose lose’ choice to either get isolated from the rest of the world or forgo its ‘friendship without limits” with Russia. US wielded its oft-used weapon of crippling economic sanctions and cutting off Russia from payment system, Swift.
  9. While aiming to inflict “strategic defeat” on Russia, Biden Admn. has also intensified military confrontation with China around Taiwan straits. Biden has sought to discard strategic ambiguity long characterizing US position, not committing to what US would do if China were to attack Taiwan. There has been understanding between China and USA with USA agreeing to “One China Policy” and China adopting policy of peaceful reunification with declaration of Taiwan independence being the red line. With growing rivalry between US and China particularly in this part of the world due to US efforts to contain rise of China, tensions around Taiwan straits have increased. US has converted earlier PSI into Quad including US, Japan, Australia and India. And for the military component US, UK and Australia have formed AUKUS. USA is also activating military alliance with Japan and South Korea where US Army is already stationed. US is harping on peaceful right of navigation in South China Sea and talking of “rule-based order”, these rules obviously dictated by USA. USA wants to keep China embroiled in the region mobilizing its neighbours to check spread of its influence.
  10. While US is trying to contain China, China is spreading its influence world-wide. As noted in the Political Resolution of the last Congress, China has increased its investments in African and Latin American countries in a big way. China’s Belt and Road Initiative is actually a tool of export of capital to mainly third world countries. China has led the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Bank as a counter to Asian Development Bank led by Japan and USA. China has emerged as the largest trading partner of a number of countries. Of particular note is the rise of Chinese influence in Middle-east along with decline of US domination of the region. Recently Middle-East has been one of the main foci of concentration of China. China has brokered agreement between Saudi Arabia and Iran, who had been pitted against each other by US imperialism to deepen Shia-Sunni divide to control this oil rich region. Thaw in relations between these two large countries in the region has important bearing on the whole of Middle-east. Syria has been re-admitted to Arab League. Containment of China is obviously a failed strategy while dependence on Chinese “supply chain” is an important factor. China continues building its military power especially its navy and strategic military assets. It started projecting its military power in Asia especially East and Southeast Asia. China has stationed its troops in several countries to protect its investments and nationals working there. It has made a military base in Djibouti on the Red Sea. It has also set up facilities at several ports in Indian Ocean. China has also signed a pact with Solomon Islands in South Pacific close to Australia. China is doing this to protect its trade routes, but these military installations also have offensive potential. That giant US companies still extract surplus from Chinese labour does not detract from social imperialist character of China. Such surplus appropriations among themselves have not been and are not uncommon among imperialist countries.
  11. In a bid to restore uni-polar world, US is confronted with changed world situation. US is facing increasing assertiveness of global South in the condition of increasing contradictions among big imperialist powers. Countries of global South are displaying differing degrees of assertiveness depending on their economic and military strength as well as strategic position. Several of those countries refused to condemn Russia for Ukraine war. In fact such countries represent majority of the world people. Even many countries of South which condemned Russian invasion refused to impose US led sanctions against Russia. US wanted to create a situation of Russia vs. the World but is facing a situation of West vs. the Rest.
  12. Use of economic sanctions against Russia which was meant to give crippling blow to Russian economy and bring Russia to heel, worked quite differently. Russia is a commodity superpower, large producer of oil and gas, fertilizer and food grains and a number of minerals. All these are much needed by the world. Sanctions imposed in the aftermath of this war have brought tremendous suffering to people of third world countries. It has raised sharply the prices of crude which is a big burden on them. It has also raised prices of grains, as Russia and Ukraine are among big exporters, increasing difficulties faced by poor people. Besides Russia is a big supplier of arms and ammunition to a number of countries including India and this dependence cannot be done away with in the near future. A number of countries refused to impose economic sanctions on Russia; these sanctions were unilateral and did not have approval of United Nations. While Russia redirected its oil and gas to east mainly China and India, the failure of sanctions gave rise to a chain reaction which threatens the very domination of US currency dollar over the world economy in longer run.
  13. With US using economic sanctions and its currency domination all too often, latest in case of Russia, efforts for alternative to dollar as currency for trade and as international reserve currency have increased. Many countries decided to conduct their trade in their national currencies in place of dollar. However, US dollar is still the dominant currency. World’s two third (68%) trade was being done in dollars and it accounted for 80 percent of foreign exchange transactions and 90 percent of international banking transactions in 2021.US dollar though is still the dominant reserve currency in the world but now accounting for 56% of the foreign currency reserves of all countries which a decade earlier used to be over 70%.
  14. In determining world reserve currency energy trade plays a very important role. Payments for oil and gas are mostly made on the spot and in cash thereby making it necessary for all the countries to keep a store of forex reserve in currency acceptable to sellers of energy which has hitherto been dollar. But now many energy producers are making agreements for payment in other currencies, Chinese currency Yuan is among the major gainers. Major economies of Asia, Africa and Latin America are abandoning trade in dollar and adopting trade in their national currencies. While Yuan is better placed than other currencies, it has far to go. Gold is re-emerging as vehicle of global trade and most of the countries are purchasing Gold. Trade in national currencies backed by Gold is increasing.
  15. This process called de-dollarization has vast implications for US imperialism. It dilutes the impact of USA’s oft used weapon of economic sanctions. It also deprives US of its ability to tide over its economic crisis by printing more dollars. De-dollarization will deliver a crippling blow to US drive to restore uni-polar world and would go a long way in consolidating the multi-polar world. However, this de-dollarization will be a relatively slow process given the size of US economy, US companies being among the biggest traders and political influence of USA.
  16. US led grouping G7, a platform of seven western developed capitalist countries, has been one of the main vehicles of rallying the West under the umbrella of USA. Through this US controls the economic policies of imperialist world and influences that of the entire world. NATO is military counterpart of this grouping, only Japan being outside. However, US Army is stationed in Japan. In opposition to these five large economies called ‘emerging’ economies have formed a forum called BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). This grouping covers over two fifth of the world population and more than a quarter of world GDP. China accounts for nearly 70% of the GDP of this group. However, BRICS is not as cohesive an organization as G7 but it is still formidable. Western powers want to disturb this emerging group. A number of countries from Asia including Middle-east, Africa and Latin America have expressed intent to join BRICS. Political counterpart of this group is Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) which presently consists of Russia, China, four central Asian Republics, India and Pakistan with Iran having recently joined as a member. A large number of countries of Asia including Middle-east, Africa and Latin America have expressed desire to join SCO. Here again SCO is still only a political platform and doesn’t have military cohesiveness. But China, Russia and Central Asian republics do undertake joint military exercises. Both SCO and BRICS are in a way led by China. Hence an alternative to the US led economic and military blocs is in the making. Thus, inter-imperialist contradiction is increasingly coming to the Centre and is influencing the other major contradictions of the imperialist system including the contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and peoples which has been playing the central role i.e., of principal contradiction.

Contradiction between Imperialism and Oppressed Countries and Peoples

  1. Contradiction between imperialism and oppressed countries and peoples has continued to grow. However its expression is getting influenced by developments of other major contradictions. In the period of globalization world production has come to be dominated by a handful of giant MNCs. To give just a few examples: As of 2015, the global market for seeds and pesticides was almost entirely controlled by six multinational companies—BASF, Bayer, Dow, DuPont, Monsanto, and Syngenta— they together controlled 75 percent of the global market for pesticides, 63 percent of the global market for seeds, and 75 percent of global private research in these areas. The production of the top five multinational automobile corporations accounts for almost half of global automobile production, and that of the top ten accounts for 70 percent. Ten multinationals controlled 47 percent of the global market for pharmaceuticals and related medical products. Similarly, most of the growth in international trade pertains to these giant MNCs. According to UNCTAD, 80% of global trade is linked to international production network of MNCs either as FDI or “arms length production” between leading firms and formally independent suppliers. This globalization of production has helped western monopoly companies most. Overseas profits within the total profits of U.S. corporations increased from 5 percent in 1950 to 35 percent in 2008. The proportion of overseas profits within the total profits of Japanese corporations increased from 23.4 percent in 1997 to 52.5 percent in 2008. All these profits have come from exploitation of cheap labour and natural resources of other countries. Domination of these giant MNCs is apparent from the fact that global commodity chains dominated by them constituted 70% of world trade. Another important fact is 97% of all patents are held by corporations of rich countries.
  2. Exploitation of oppressed countries has continued unabated, intensifying with newer forms. Net wealth transfer from oppressed countries (called global South) was according to an estimate US $ 10.8 trillion in 2015 and a total of US $ 242 trillion over a period from 1990 to 2015. This contributed to a quarter of GDP (24%) of developed countries of the West. This super-exploitation i.e. expropriation without compensation was thirty times the aid flow from these imperialist countries of the West to global South. And this came not from monetary trade deficit which was very small but due to expropriation of wealth from global South. This had little to do with differences in real productivity but was due to mainly neo-colonial exploitation.
  3. Increasing domination of financial sector over production has been growing over the decades. Increasing financialization has meant that financial sector plays a dominant role in allocation of surplus in all sectors. This has become an important tool for the extraction of surplus from oppressed countries. Financialization is sucking up surplus through even minor pores. An example is corporate backed microfinance which reaches hitherto unreached areas of production. Imperialism has trapped oppressed countries in such a web from which it is difficult to break free- economy, military groups, relations of different degrees of dependency. However, intensifying contradictions among imperialist countries are giving opportunities for the expression of opposition of these countries to imperialist exploitation and oppression. While their contention brings danger of war close, their collusion is no better, with lesser outlet of breaking these chains, lesser opportunities for utilization of their contradictions in the interests of countries, nations and peoples.
  4. Since colonization by European powers and especially under imperialism the form of exploitation has been changing. What was once mainly related to trade of commodities thrusting certain commodities through war and subjugation, developed into export of capital in the era of imperialism. That too had been changing with newer imperialist forces joining the race of share in the world resources- natural resources, labour power and markets. Initially it was capital export for capital to set up mainly production of consumer commodities to take advantage of available natural resources, cheap labour power and also local markets. When Soviet social imperialism spread its tentacles, it exported capital to set up capital goods industries. In the aftermath of Second World War when western imperialism were engaged in warding off communism from Europe, Japan and some other countries, mainly repairing the damage to the imperialist world, the then Soviet Union entered in the oppressed countries with this strategy. This model was called by them as ‘non-capitalist’ path of development. In the era of globalization with the advent of uni-polar world, industrial production was shifted to third world countries keeping control through financialization and research and development with WTO regulations. With China becoming social-imperialist, it selected infrastructure development as its primary target. Its rate of return is low hence it needs long term investment which imperialist countries have been trying to avoid unless it was linked to other opportunities. World Bank the principal organ for such investment has been placing stringent conditions to suit interests of western powers. But one advantage is that such loans are to govts. hence, country making investment gains leverage over the govt. and its policies. It is due to exportable capital available with China that it is attracting a number of poor countries needing such investment. USA is the biggest economy but it has to borrow to meet its expenditure due to large expenditure on social security and on defense. Cut in either of the two- one will bring domestic opposition and the other decline in military power- are not considered byUS rulers at present.
  5. Extent of China’s utilization of world resources can be seen from the following: In 2016–17, China consumed 59 percent of the world total supply of cement, 47 percent of aluminum, 56 percent of nickel, 50 percent of coal, 50 percent of copper, 50 percent of steel, 27 percent of gold, 14 percent of oil, 31 percent of rice, 47 percent of pork, 23 percent of corn, and 33 percent of cotton. A large portion of China’s demand for commodities is supplied by developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Chinese state-owned capital had become the world’s single largest combination of industrial and financial capital and the world’s most powerful monopoly capitalist group. China’s total stock of direct investment abroad in 2017 was $1.81 trillion, including $1.14 trillion invested in Asia (63 percent), $43 billion invested in Africa (2.4 percent), $111 billion invested in Europe (6.1 percent), $387 billion invested in Latin America and the Caribbean (21 percent), $87 billion invested in North America (4.8 percent), and $42 billion invested in Australia and New Zealand (2.3 percent). While some of its investments in Hongkong and Macao are re-routing of capital by Chinese bourgeoisie, its investments for raw material sources and loans to states for infrastructure projects which are to be paid for by the people of these countries show its exploitative character.
  6. China has joined the western powers in exploiting third world countries. Russia too has increased its penetration in countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. But Russian engagement is mostly in supply of oil & gas, food grains & fertilizers and importantly in defense equipments. While western imperialist countries have been selectively using issues of “democracy” and “human rights” to pressurize the rulers of these countries, Russia and China do not use such issues against the local ruling classes. It has given them advantage vis-à-vis rulers of third world countries.
  7. Imperialist penetration of different sectors of economy and burgeoning foreign debt has made most of third world countries prone to serious economic shocks in the event of any disturbance in international climate. Such shocks lead to sharp deterioration of people’s living conditions, at times leading to street protests. In Sri Lanka recently a serious economic crisis has shaken the country with food, fuel and essential commodities going out of reach of the people. Sri Lankan economy has tourism and remittances among main sources of revenue. While Corona had compromised tourism, rise in prices of crude gave a crippling blow while sudden shift to organic farming had brought down agricultural production. But underlying cause is the deep imperialist control over the economy and rising debt burden. Intensifying contradiction between US and China is also playing an important role as shown by IMF bail-out. Pakistan is also undergoing a sort of economic melt-down. Forex reserves have fallen perilously. Pakistan is seeking debt restructuring from creditor countries and has approached IMF for loan. Despite implementing several conditions IMF had dragged feet for a long time. Prices have risen sharply and people’s conditions are abysmal. A number of other third world countries are facing the same condition.
  8. Neo-liberalism created havoc in the world especially worsening the conditions of toiling people in third world countries. In 2011 while active work force in the world was of 1.4 billion, global reserve army of labour was much more, almost 2.4 billion. Worsening conditions of people have roused the people against neo-liberalism. Rise against neo-liberalism has become a rallying battle cry especially in resource rich Latin American countries. Latin American countries were the first among oppressed countries which were subjected to neo-liberal policies. While a section of elite aligned to US imperialism favours continuation of neo-liberal policies and concessions to imperialist companies, but a section of elite favours adopting distributive policies which entail expenditure of at least a part of the revenue from the sale of rich natural resources to be spent on social welfare programmes. This struggle has taken a pronounced anti-US character in Latin American countries. In country after country, forces opposing neo-liberal policies and continued domination of US companies have come to power. After Venezuela and Nicaragua (in Cuba for a very long time) such forces have come to power in Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Chile and recently in Brazil. Earlier biggest US supporter in Latin America, Columbia, candidate opposing neo-liberal policies has become President. From backyard, Latin America has emerged as a front against US imperialism. In this growing economic relations with China which has emerged as biggest trade partner of a number of Latin American countries and with increasing investment in these countries, has played a role. Similarly the proximity of Cuba and Venezuela to Russia with economic and military ties with it is also an important factor at a time of decline of US imperialism. It is significant that armed struggles have declined in Latin American countries. Some issues raised during armed struggle are finding expression in the struggle against neo-liberalism in these countries. In many countries the elected leaders have had association with revolutionary movements.
  9. In Latin American countries there is big section of ruling elite which supports US imperialism and its MNCs. These sections are quite predominant in state structure and are able to overturn even the election results. USA extends all help to these forces. Hence, even when progressive forces come to power they remain under big pressure from reactionary forces. State structure is multi-tiered and reactionary sections dominating one or the other sector are able to assert themselves. Recently in Peru, elected President was overthrown in a military coup. There was continuous protest against his ouster. US has sent Army to control the situation.
  10. There has grown a scramble for the immensely resource rich continent of Africa. It has earlier been dominated by Britain and France, with US having its own sphere and also operating through them. Canada, Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Belgium also have their interests. However, Russia and China have made gains in their influence while some African countries maintain relations with both Russia & China and with Western powers. Influence of France has sharply declined in Western Africa with Mali and Burkina Faso snapping relations with France. Recent military takeover in Niger also has strong anti-France stance. Chad and CAR are also against French imperialist domination. In countries of West Africa and Sahel region, Russian influence is increasing with PMC Wagner group playing an important role. Western overthrow of Gaddafi has unsettled conditions in a number of countries and western games of arming and using militant groups is getting exposed. Chinese investments in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, South Sudan, and in a number of countries have increased. Eritrea and Algeria have been traditionally close to Russia. Egypt and Nigeria are maintaining relations with all powers. USA has tightened its grip over Morocco. In Libya, factions-one aligned with Turkey and Italy and the other backed by Russia, Egypt and UAE supported by some western imperialist powers also, are fighting for supremacy. The waning influence of western powers can be seen in most African countries abstaining in UN on resolution on Ukraine and their refusal to impose sanctions on Russia. Seven African states had sent a delegation to Ukraine and Russia to urge them to take to diplomacy and dialogue which is anathema to western powers and Ukraine. Scramble for Africa among imperialist countries has taken the form of armed conflicts with a large number of wars going on in different countries of Africa.
  11. In the Middle-East, contention among imperialist powers has become very acute. With Russian military presence in Syria and Russian defense ties with a number of regimes in the region and growing economic relations of the countries in the region with China, alignments of these rulers with different imperialist powers are being reshaped. Saudi Arabia and Iran have normalized relations with the mediation of China. China has emerged as a big player in the region as a large buyer of crude from here, big supplier of manufactured goods and a big investor in the infrastructure projects in the region. With declining influence of US imperialism in the region and increasing role of Russia, China is trying to position itself as a major interlocutor in the region. Iraq is seeing sharp contest for influence between USA and Iran. Turkey, another important regional power, is balancing and rebalancing its relations especially with USA and Russia while trying to increase its influence in the region including in Central Asia. Israel, the closest ally of USA in the region is facing increasing isolation despite attempts by US imperialism to mend ties between Arab monarchies and Zionist Israel through Abraham Accords. In the developing situation, Israel has seen rise to power of the most reactionary regime totally bent on eliminating Palestinians from their historical homeland. It has caused great strain in Israeli society which has been inherent in the oft quoted observation that Israel could not be both Zewish and democratic at the same time. Biden Administration had promised to re-join Nuclear Agreement with Iran but has not done so due to opposition from Israel and due to changing equations among the countries of this important region.
  12. Palestinians’ self-sacrificing struggle against offensive of Zionist rulers of Israel backed by US imperialism against Gaza marks a new chapter in the Palestinians struggle for realizing of their national aspirations. This flare up has come in the backdrop of attack by Palestinian resistance groups led by Hamas at a resort in Israel used by military personnel and reservists to foil the conspiracy of US imperialism to totally erase the national aspirations of Palestinians. Design of Zionist rulers to throw out all Palestinians from the historic Palestine is being resisted by Palestinians who refuse to succumb. Over 35000 have died in Gaza and hundreds have died in West Bank resisting systemic encroachment of Palestinian land by Zionists. Sacrifices of Palestinians are burying imperialist conspiracy in the form of Abraham Accords totally sidelining Palestinians’ national rights and have brought the resolution of the issue on the agenda of global community. International Court of Justice has held Israel guilty in the genocide case initiated by South Africa. Houthis of Yemen have blocked Red Sea for ships going or coming from Israel and are also targeting ships of US and UK. Peoples’ support for the Palestinians is rising in Arab countries, in Middle East and throughout countries of global South.
  13. Israel backed by US imperialism is displaying impunity towards world people and UN fora. Israeli rulers are bent on enlarging the war to divert the issue of their totally illegal, inhuman and unjustified occupation of Palestinian lands. Danger of war in the region is growing with its implication for the whole world. This flare up has come when inter-imperialist contradictions are growing.
  14. The contradiction between imperialism and oppressed nations, finds its expression in the struggle of the people against imperialism and reactionary rulers aligned to imperialism. Revolutionary movements and people’s struggles against imperialist companies and corporate are part of this struggle against imperialism.

Contradiction between Labour & Capital Especially in Imperialist Countries

  1. With deepening crisis of imperialism despite shift of labour intensive production outside the country, imperialist bourgeoisie has increased attacks against the workers in their own countries. Globalization of production helped monopoly capital enormously increase their profits; it helped them also to lower wages of workers in imperialist countries. For example in US between 1982 and 2006, the average annual growth of the real wages of production workers in nonfinancial corporations was just 1.1 percent, not only much lower than the 2.43 percent recorded from 1958 to 1966, but also lower than the 1.68 percent during the economic downturn from 1966 to 1982. Sharp rise in prices of essential commodities in developed capitalist countries including US, UK, Canada, Germany, France are further depressing the real wages of workers while rising interest rates are increasing costs (EMI) of many items of daily use which workers use.
  2. Contradiction between Labour and Capital in developed capitalist countries finds its expression in growing struggles of workers as well as struggles for racial justice, in the form of growing women’s movement for gender justice and against other forms of oppression including that of migrant workers. Such struggles are coming up in several countries both in organized sector like factories and mines but also in sectors pertaining to distribution of goods and services. The process of de-industrialization in imperialist countries is seen in the preponderance of the workers’ struggle being in service sectors- i.e. of transport workers including airlines staff, workers engaged in delivery of goods and services, teachers and non-teaching staff in schools and colleges, doctors, nurses and hospital staff and generally of different service sectors. These struggles are finding expression even through liberal sections of ruling class formations, yet these represent growing contradiction between Labour and Capital. As monopoly capitalists extract more and more surplus from working masses, they promote xenophobic, racial groups to attack the working class movement. It serves them by curbing the working class movement as well as diverting workers from the struggle against crude exploitation by monopoly capitalism. To an extent this also reflects contradictions among different monopoly groups with those engaged in production in imperialist countries more likely to side with these xenophobic, supremacist groups employing the slogan of saving domestic employment. They are trying and are to an extent able to mislead workers away from the class struggle into channels of anti-immigrant, racial prejudices thereby disorganizing the workers’ struggles and make them subservient to monopoly capitalist groups.
  3. In the imperialist countries ultra-right forces are becoming stronger as xenophobia, racism and demonization of immigrants from third world countries is gaining ground. Old parties of ruling classes, especially Social Democrats, are declining as they support US led domination of the world which is bringing economic hardships to the labouring masses. It is ironical that rightist parties are tapping into this people’s anger including that of the working class through populist slogans. Most of these parties do not support war in Ukraine and some are supported by Russia. There is overall a decline in democratic rights throughout the world, including in western countries.
  4. Imperialist aggressions and plunder are at the root of growing number of migrants and refugees in the world. According to ICHR, number of migrants had crossed over 100 million; most of these are economic migrants. We find a large number of people migrating from India as well due to stagnant economic position and facing no real prospect of improving their economic conditions. These migrants brave all hardships and even undertake death defying risks to migrate to other countries e.g., Mediterranean boats and US-Mexican border. There they face years of hardships, discrimination and harassment. And yet they undertake these journeys. This tells volumes of the claims of economic development and prosperity made by Indian rulers.
  5. Worst is the plight of refugees whose number has already reached 36 million, 8 million have been added over the last year itself. Of these 76% are drawn from eight countries, all victims of imperialist aggressions or imperialist sponsored wars. During the last year, 52% of all refugees came from just three countries- Ukraine, Syria and Afghanistan. These refugees face most horrendous life. Rohyngia refugees have been additions to the large numbers due to the genocide perpetrated against them by Myanmar rulers. Issues of migrants and refugees have emerged as important issues in working class movement in the developed countries. Ruling classes in these countries portray migrants/refugees as main cause of their problems to hide workers’ exploitation even as they unleash wars and aggressions which are responsible for this large number of refugees in the first place.
  6. With unchecked plunder of natural resources and production of harmful gases by industries, environmental degradation under Capitalism has reached a tipping point. Profit greed of Capitalism leading to degradation of environment and no steps for rejuvenation has brought climate to be one of the main issues before the humanity. The overwhelming responsibility of this environmental degradation lies with western imperialist powers but they are trying to throw this burden onto the shoulders of underdeveloped countries. They are approaching the issue as if the responsibilities of all the countries are same. Environmental protection is needed by all the countries but the countries who have contributed most to this degradation must share most of the burden of correcting it. However, they are using it to perpetuate the existing inequalities among countries, to perpetuate their domination over the world and to check the economic development of undeveloped or underdeveloped countries. Imperialists are maneuvering to sell their ‘green technology’ on the one hand, and shift the burden of environmental protection onto the shoulders of third world countries in the name of trading in carbon points whereby they can continue their industries while paying pittances to poor countries to trade carbon points.
  7. The brunt of environmental protection is being born by poor countries as well as poor people among these countries. A campaign is launched against the tribals, traditional guardians of environment, that their activities are leading to deforestation and degradation of environment. But the fact is that it is the corporate, foreign and domestic who are mainly responsible for destruction of forests and degradation of the environment. Conspiracies are hatched and vested groups are mobilized to campaign for forcible eviction of tribals from the forests while corporate are handed over vast tracts of land for exploitation of mineral resources and setting up polluting industries. The struggle for protection of environment is intimately connected with the struggle against imperialism and corporate.
  8. Indian Govt. has refrained from criticizing Russia in UNO and abstained from voting for the resolution condemning Russian invasion. While Russia being the main supplier of defense equipment is an important consideration, Indian Govt.’s stand is also due to present strategic scenario in Indian neighbourhood, especially post US withdrawal from Afghanistan. In India, except a few dissenting voices, ruling classes are united on this position of maintaining closer ties with US but not condemning Russia for invasion of Ukraine. In fact increasing conflict among imperialist powers has been an important source of their ‘independent’ stand. Otherwise Indian Govt. had earlier repeatedly voted against Iran, Syria and even Palestine in international fora. Indian Govt. is trying to use this conflict among imperialist powers to ease off border stand-off with China in Laddakh. Russia is also interested in settling this dispute between China and India. On the other hand, US President and close allies of USA have expressed ‘disappointment’ with India. This is bound to create some distance with US and its close allies. However, given India’s use for them against China they may not take it further.
  9. Indian neighbourhood is witnessing sharpening of contention among imperialist powers besides worsening economic conditions in these countries. There has been growing conflict between China and USA-UK in Nepal. India is mainly siding with western powers besides catering to her own interests. Nepal has seen sharp swings over the past few years in this regard. Nepal has signed on BRI of China and also on MCC, an assistance programme of US. Relations with India also including border disputes at two points have undergone sharp swings. On the other hand, conditions of people are becoming worse. Migration of youth for work abroad continues and has even increased. Bangladesh had over the past decade improved its economic conditions in which transfer of production of apparel MNCs of the western countries, largely to take advantage of cheap labour power in Bangladesh, had played a prominent role. With stagnant and even decline in demand in western markets and rise in the prices of fossil fuels, economic crisis in Bangladesh is deepening. Pakistan is seeing escalating contention between USA and China with its economy and elite tied to the west and its strategic interests linked to China and increasing Chinese penetration in its economy e.g. CPEC. Pakistan has become an open battle ground between the contending powers. Since withdrawal from Afghanistan, US imperialists have increased their interest in Pakistan both to ward off increasing influence of China as well as to secure one more route to their influence in Central Asia. Sri Lanka, embroiled in economic collapse, has long been a battle ground for influence between China, USA and India.
  10. Increasing contention between China and USA is influencing the developments in South East Asia, in countries east of India. In Myanmar, military overthrew the civilian govt. People including national minorities and tribal groups have risen in struggle against military junta. Military rulers are suppressing this resistance employing crude force including aerial bombing. China and also Russia are maintaining good relations with military rulers. China seeks not only vast natural resources of Myanmar but also link to maritime route through Myanmar. This has become especially important for China in view of rising tensions in South China Sea through which most of the trade to Europe, Africa and Asian countries is being routed. Further to the East, in Thailand too, the military and monarchy are refusing to honour the results of elections and let the winners of elections come to power. In both Myanmar and Thailand, military officers have vast economic interests in different companies. Situation in Myanmar and Thailand is creating hurdles for the ruling classes of India to develop their interests in these countries.

International Communist Movement

  1. Though we have inadequate information about the strength of communist parties in imperialist countries and in different underdeveloped/dependent/colonial/semi-colonial/ neocolonial countries, we can safely say that international communist movement is going through difficult times. While there are many factors like absence of a socialist country or lack of a world centre for the present situation this can be changed only with the rise of the revolutionary movement in one or more countries. The situation of stagnation appears to prevail though there are countries like Philippines where communist party has been waging a protracted armed struggle. This stagnation can be broken only with the rise and growth of the revolutionary movement.
  2. In the beginning of the present century communist revolutionary movement in Nepal was making big strides. We had analyzed degeneration of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in our last Party Congress. Now most of the sections that emerged from the ML movement in Nepal (and they dominate the Left in Nepal) have degenerated into ruling class parties. They have termed the end of monarchy as the revolution and now see progressive changes towards what they call as socialism only through parliamentarianism. Only Com. Mohan Vaidya led organization has not embraced this parliamentary cretinism. We should also note that longest running armed revolt by the communists in Colombia has recently seen the agreement between Colombian Govt. and last major communist organization conducting armed struggle (ELN). Largest left organization associated with armed struggle there (FARC) had reached agreement some years back. However, some sections of FARC claim to have restarted their struggle.
  3. For several years there is a talk of a ‘rise’ of a new brand of ‘socialism’ based on some redistribution of income derived from sale of natural resources to social welfare and opposition to US diktats by a section of the existing ruling structure epitomized by Hugo Chavez of Venezuela. It is not based on rule under the leadership of working class. We had termed this in our 2013 Party Congress resolution as “reformism and not socialism”. Besides in European countries and also US and Canada, Trotskyites and anarchists are active. Trotskyites, basing themselves on an admixture of social democracy and economic struggles of workers without targeting the imperialist system, have some following in some European countries.
  4. In the advanced capitalist countries anti-communism has become a regular part of the propaganda of the ruling classes even though communist movement is weak. They know their policies are creating fertile ground for the growth of workers’ struggles and communist movement and hence this vile propaganda as pre-emptive measure besides extensive surveillance and repressive measures from the early stage. Corporate media tries its best to kill the revolutionary movement by silence and also prepares ground for its crude suppression.
  5. This stagnation is at least partly related to changing character of working class especially in developed capitalist countries where de-industrialization has reduced the strength of working class as large sections of unorganized sectors have come forth. Most of the struggles reported from the developed capitalist countries pertain to these sections i.e., service sector leaving out the financial services. With production transferred to underdeveloped countries, these employees are mostly engaged in distribution of goods and services. Most of the industrial workers are engaged in saving their employment though there are reports of struggles against closures due to shifting of production and imposition of wage cuts and cuts in other benefits. Service sector workers are not concentrated at one place of work though they may be engaged in the same chain.
  6. Production transferred to third world countries is set in conditions of overwhelming unemployment and lack of any social services in those countries which influences struggle of these sections of workers. MNCs employ devious methods of outsourcing and arms’ length production thereby providing relatively better wages to their own employees and sucking up surplus from the employees not directly employed by them.
  7. This shift means greater role of workers’ struggle in underdeveloped countries and also calls for greater coordination of struggles of workers of different countries. However, these underdeveloped countries have large sectors of backward conditions of production which are being used and exploited by monopoly capital of imperialist countries. While main force of revolutionary movement is not working class in these countries, the role of working class struggles has increased in revolutionary movement in these countries like India. The centre of world revolution has moved to such countries which are main link of the imperialist chain of production.
  8. However, work in the fragmented working class with growing section of workers in unorganized sectors of production and distribution calls for change in methods of organization and struggle as compared to those of workers of large industries who are concentrated in a work place and operate with higher technology. On the other hand, workers of unorganized sector are deprived of most elementary rights including legal rights to organize and struggle which make their struggles more necessary but more difficult to organize. It calls for trained army of organizers who are well versed with these conditions and effective organization to take on the issue of their legal rights. Their struggle for regular employment and better conditions is an important arena of struggle.
  9. Future of the communist movement in developed capitalist countries lies in mobilizing this vast section of working class and integrating it with struggle of the industrial working class in factories and mines. However, it is the struggle at different stages in under-developed countries that is crucial for the international working class movement. And it is in countries like India which have vast toiling population including high number of workers and still higher number of toilers in non-industrial sectors including vast peasant population that are going to play a vital role in the revitalization of communist movement.
  10. In advanced capitalist countries, we have seen declining standards of living of the workers, longer working years for pension benefits and cut in social sector spending. There is high inflation and consequently lower real wages of workers in European countries which ruling classes there are blaming on Russia & Ukraine war. However, anti-war and anti-NATO demonstrations are being led by right wing forces. Revolutionaries should be in the forefront of demanding end to military alliances and war. This phenomenon needs greater scrutiny as rightist forces capitalize on workers’ discontent and target progressive forces and hard won victories of the working class. It should be underlined that even the gains on social issues can be defended and further gains made in association with and as a part of class struggle. Revolutionaries have to evolve suitable tactics to stop rightist forces from capitalizing on the anger of working class by their populist rhetoric.
  11. The present challenges before the communist revolutionary movement call for concrete analysis of the present situation; applying theoretical tools to comprehend and formulate immediate tasks. Practice of the revolutionary movement must and is enriching our understanding and this in turn must enrich our practice. The task of taking revolutionary theory to the vast sections of working masses and employing all available tools for that has increased in the present situation.
  12. When we assess the present state of international communist movement we find that at present there is a rise in right trend and it has become a major trend.
  13. While focusing on developing revolutionary movement in our country we should take up greater co-ordination with revolutionary communist parties/organizations in other countries. Communist movement is by nature internationalist and success of the revolutionary movement in a country is influenced by the movements and struggles in the international arena. While attempts at setting up international organization on the lines of Comintern do not accord with the conditions and needs of the world communist movement, co-ordination among communist revolutionary forces has further grown in importance due to greater connectivity. This will not only help in exchanging experiences but also lending support to each other’s struggles.

National Situation

  1. For last nine years RSS-BJP have ruled at the Centre. These years have been marked by the intensifying attacks on different sections of people and their fight back; these years mark RSS-BJP drive to impose fascism over the country and people’s resistance; struggles over these years have furnished rich experience of people’s movements. These years mark growing burden over the people, increasing prices of essential commodities and growing unemployment. These years also mark attempts by the ruling RSS-BJP to abridge the rights of the people and people’s resistance to keep the democratic space open.
  2. The economy of the country has witnessed decline in growth rate. Debt on the country has been increasing having reached Rs. 155 lakh crores by the end of 2022 (roughly over 2 trillion US$). Annual budget of the govt. is marked by the govt. borrowing to meet even the regular expenses, borrowings reaching roughly one third of the Budget. External debt has also increased sharply but a large part of it is to the corporate. A large part of the external debt is short term commercial borrowings with heavy interest burden. Govt.’s declaration of reaching $ 5 trillion economy has fallen by the wayside, still hovering around 3 trillion $.We have become the most populous country in the world. Despite tall claims by the Govt. amplified by the corporate media, we figure nowhere in the world in terms of per capita GDP. Govt.’s bogus claims are meant to hoodwink the masses and sow illusion among them that good days are ahead. These jumlas are worn out by now.
  3. Condition of the people has worsened. Our countrymen are known to somehow survive in the most adverse conditions. This should not be taken as evidence that things are fine or at least tolerable. We have seen the worst of pity and helplessness of the people during Corona pandemic when the insensitive, callous criminal govt. not only did not provide any help but forced the people to be stranded on roads by suddenly declaring inhuman and unparalleled lockdown on March 25, 2020. Nearly 5 million people are said to have died (Govt. admits one tenth of that figure). The insensitive govt. did not increase the health budget but only showered largesse on their cronies and benefactors. India is one of the rare countries which did not raise its health budget during pandemic. However, govt. was forced to increase allocation under MNREGS which proved to be life line for many though RSS-BJP and Modi had been routinely denouncing it.
  4. Cut in the govt. spending on the welfare schemes have been going apace. Now this cut has reached the defense sector. In the name of saving money for the defense equipment, govt. has launched agnipath scheme where young are recruited only for four years and only a fourth of them would be given regular employment. It shows utter disregard of the govt. towards youth of the country who find increasingly shrinking avenues for regular employment. However, expenditure on the domestic security forces especially on the para-military has been rising every year. It amply shows that the Govt.’s main design is to suppress the people and crush their struggles. Unemployment is enormous in the country. Only a few register themselves in the employment exchanges because very few get jobs through them. Vast countryside is a big reservoir of underemployment. Rural life shows ample evidence of this. Unemployment among educated is also rising and even if some of them do get jobs, these have hardly any relation with the education they have had. Unemployment is a big crisis brewing in India.
  5. Govt. has showered largesse on the corporate. Not only their outstanding bank loans have been waived off, they have been gifted people’s resources dirt cheap, changing rules or simply flouting them. Govt. has waived bank loans of the rich to the tune of Rs. 10.58 lakh crores over the past five years and of Rs. 13.86 lakh crores over last nine years i.e. since RSS-BJP Govt. has been in power. Added to this huge sum are taxes waived off mostly of the big capitalists to the tune of Rs. 20 lakh crores. On the other hand, allocation for the social welfare schemes has continuously declined e.g., rural development, MNREGS (except during pandemic), food security, fertilizer subsidy and the like. However, RSS-BJP Govt. has weaponized these welfare schemes electorally. With the poor in the villages living a life of destitution, even the pittance offered under govt. schemes are like life savers. With the lists of beneficiaries in the govt. hand, poor people whom they call labarthis are mobilized in favour of the ruling Party at the pain of exclusion from the list of beneficiaries.
  6. Abysmal conditions of the people of the country is obvious from the fact that India is home to the largest number of poor, even disproportionately larger than our share in the world population. Indians constitute half of the world’s extreme poor. India is very high on hunger index but very low on other indices relating to health and well being. We have the largest number of patients suffering from diseases which have been eradicated from most of the countries. Per capita food availability in India is very low. If despite such abject poverty MNCs wish to come to Indian markets, it is because a section of Indian people is well off. There is tremendous inequality in India. Just 1% of Indians own 40% of the wealth of the country. Our country fares very poorly on Gini co-efficient scale showing large inequality. Well off sections, though small in proportion to the population of the country, are still a large enough market for MNCs to covet.
  7. The imperialist penetration of different sectors of economy continues to grow. Market capitalization goes through tides and ebbs largely owing to the ingress and egress of foreign capital in share market. While big capitalists are tied to imperialist capital in myriad of ways, even the so-called Start-ups are backed by foreign funds. Most of the companies have links to foreign capital and technology. Imperialist capital in league with capital of Indian corporate, comprador big bourgeoisie, suck up profits from smallest level of production enmeshing the toiling people in their web e.g. microfinance. India has been the largest buyer of weapons from imperialist countries over past decade. There is no attempt to develop indigenous defense technology; buying fully operational fighter jets and other equipments. Despite possessing huge resources and vast scientific and technical manpower, India continues to be playground of imperialist exploitation and plunder with Indian big capitalists having a share in this. India continues to be almost fully dependent on foreign companies for advanced technology. Large amount of funds go to imperialist countries in the form of repatriation of profits, royalties, interest payment, buying of advanced technology and machinery, and a number of other heads. Make in India only emphasizes making in India and not development of India. RSS-BJP slogan of ‘swadeshi’ is fully bogus and only meant to hoodwink the people.
  8. People of the country are reeling under rise in prices of essential commodities which have taken even much needed goods out of the reach of the majority of the people. Exorbitant taxes constitute a large part of price of commodities. GST has attacked the rights of the states to raise revenue for their schemes and it has also increased tax burden on the people. It is an indirect tax levied on goods and services. Rate of increase in GST collections has outpaced the GDP growth rate, nearly by double the margin. GST collection has increased by nearly 50% between 2019 and 2022 i.e. from 12.21 lakh crores to Rs. 18.10 lakh crores while GDP has grown nearly one fourth over the period. Added to these are Central Excise Duty, customs duties and other charges. Even small shopkeepers face increasing burden of taxes and other charges. If we take into account all indirect taxes these constitute major part of the revenues of the Central and state govts. All such taxes on goods and services should be abolished. Govt. should raise its revenue by taxing the rich through direct taxes. There is no justification for indirect taxes which take essential commodities out of reach of the people.

Attacks on the Working Class

  1. Though foreign corporate and imperialist countries have since long been demanding changes in labour laws for increasing their profits, Modi led RSS-BJP Govt. has launched big attack against the labour laws. They have abrogated all existing labour laws and made four labour codes. These labour codes are to do away with the provisions relating to job security and diluting other rights. The idea is to further depress the wages and extract more surplus value from the workers degrading their living and working conditions. There is large scale contractualization of labour force in the public sector and govt. departments. Term employment and outsourcing is also in vogue and no restriction on contractualization of work of either perennial nature or work which is integral part of the establishment. Conditions in private sector have turned even uglier with pruning of labour law implementation machinery. All that is needed now is self-certification by capitalists of implementation of labour laws. Fruits of the struggles over decades are sought to be wiped out in one sweep. Workers have resisted this attack to different degrees. However, the Govt. has not dared to implement labour codes for a long time. This attack needs to be combated with broadest unity and a lot of initiative on part of the revolutionary and militant trade unions.
  2. Privatization of public sector is going apace. Govt. is even waiving off the debts of the units which are being privatized (like Air India) but they are not willing to waive off debts for public sector and this debt continues to be a big drag on the finances of PSEs. Worse, such waiving off of debts for private sector is being included in the capital expenditure of the Union Govt. In every budget Govt. scales up its privatization targets, even coming up with monetization of public sector assets. However, these targets are not met due to slow down in the economy. Most of the short fall in these targets is compensated by sale of mines of coal and minerals. These have not been commercial transactions but open loot and plunder. Modi Govt. has implemented Gujarat model which is fashioned after building industrial assets and establishments with public money for private owners.
  3. The chief feature of working class in almost all sectors now is impermanent jobs and lack of rights. In PSUs and in govt. sector in both central and state establishments, contract, outsourced, casual and temporary workers far outstrip permanent workforce. In fact new nomenclatures have been created to rob workers of their rights, viz “voluntary” workers, gig workers, platform workers etc. in which a large workforce is employed.  Textile and garments remains the biggest industrial employer, followed closely by construction and then Indian railways. Even in essential services, temporary employment is the rule. A huge women workforce is employed as scheme workers, with new terms used to justify low or even no wages (just honorarium and commissions for AASHAs) and no rights.  Gig workers are actually piece-rated workers but are denied status of workers along with ESI, PF and a minimum wage. Statutory social security benefits like ESI and PF stand grossly undermined and with that go maternity benefits which working women availed. Over 93% of the working class is nonunionized and a larger percentage is in unorganized sector. The task in the working class is huge; unionizing the workers, ensuring even minimum wages and statutory rights, developing their struggles concretizing demands on the basis of conditions in different sectors. While struggles of these workers are mostly for securing legal rights, politicization of workers and drawing them into struggle for their democratic and political rights should be taken up.

Attack on Agriculture and Peasantry

  1. Govt. has continuously been attacking the Agriculture and peasantry of the country. This is the biggest employer in the country and great absorber of economic shocks. Most of the workers of unorganized sectors have any way one foot in the village. It helps capitalists to get cheap labour but helps workers in times when greedy capitalists and callous Govt. abandons them in times of need. Govt. is trying to throw peasants out of agriculture by withdrawing support from agriculture. Govt. wishes to change the crop pattern to grow crops which are not grown in temperate climate of imperialist countries. This they call value addition but have scant regard for the food security of the largest population of the world. This can be seen in the reduced allocation to almost all sectors dealing with agriculture and rural areas. Govt. wishes to leave them to the mercy of the corporate. The only sector cared for to some extent is infrastructure and real estate, that too for the benefit of private players as most of it in private or PPP mode.
  2. Taking advantage of the pandemic situation and total denial of democratic rights in that name, Govt. tried to hand over agricultural land and agricultural operations to corporate through three Agri Acts. That attack was beaten back by a historic glorious farmers’ struggle during 2020-21. Govt. was forced to repeal three black Acts. This was the biggest and most determined extra-parliamentary mass movement in recent times. But the Govt. machinations have not stopped. Govt. policies are resulting in increase in the prices of agricultural inputs. On the other hand, Govt. has not accepted the demand of the peasantry for MSP according to Swaminathan committee recommendation despite agreeing to tackle this issue. Before 2014 elections Modi himself had committed to implement Swaminathan committee recommendation on MSP but after coming to power his Govt. told the apex Court that it was not possible to implement it. Even the announced MSP is not implemented in most parts of the country and Govt. has not put up any machinery in many regions for purchasing agricultural produce. It should be borne in mind that prices of agricultural produce are kept low to provide for Corporate profits by keeping the wages low and raw material cheap. Thus question of MSP is linked to the distribution of values produced in the economy and not just agriculture. A powerful movement is needed to realize this demand. Main parliamentary opposition party Congress too did not implement it nor even kept it in its manifesto.
  3. There is a vast multitude of rural people who are engaged in different activities. Unemployment is a big problem among these and they don’t even have land as an absorber of this crisis. Their utmost need is employment. There is meaning to rural development only if rural people get employment. There are wide possibilities of different types of industries and employment in the rural areas. But the Govt. is deliberately ignoring them. There is a need to strengthen MNREGS for creation of assets especially employment generating assets for which there is ample scope in rural areas. Colonial rule had disrupted the link between agriculture and industry, it is only by re-establishing this link that problem of poverty and unemployment can be solved in the country.

Rewriting of History

  1. Over the last nine years, the Govt. has endeavoured to rewrite history. The reason for this is to wipe out the history of Indian people’s struggle against colonial rule, as present rulers did not participate in that; were rather accomplices of colonial rulers. Another important reason is to prettify the heinous caste system by singing praises to the period in which this system took root or was in full force. They wish to paint that as the golden period of Indian history. Its purpose is to consolidate Hindutva plank which is mainly upper caste Hindu chauvinism. They are attacking culture and all creative arts for the purpose of perpetuating mono-culture i.e. the cultural hegemony of Hindu upper castes.
  2. RSS is a fascist organization of ruling classes. It stands for Hindutva. BJP is its electoral wing. All the mass organizations like ABVP, BMS, BKS, VHP etc. are directly controlled by RSS. Under its rule, attacks on the oppressed castes have increased. On the other hand, they have also tried to atomize oppressed castes, dealing with them as individual caste group and not in relation to their oppression by upper castes. This social engineering i.e., micromanagement of oppressed castes, has undermined the parties based on oppressed castes as they do not fight caste oppression but use it for coming to or sharing power in the present system.

Increasing Attacks Against Dalits

  1. Under RSS-BJP rule attacks against Dalits have increased. Besides attacks by upper caste landlords and their henchmen in rural areas, they are also attacked by vigilante groups for cattle trade and for challenging upper caste hegemony in the rural areas. The lands meant for them are often not given to them and they are attacked for claiming their rights. The perpetrators of these crimes are seldom prosecuted, and hardly ever punished, rather often glorified. Besides such attacks, reservation in jobs is not properly implemented under different pretexts. Govts. have made sure that such discrimination, even when it is apparent and proven, is not punishable and not considered as an atrocity. On the other hand, an atmosphere of them being undeserving lacking merit, is created, demoralizing them. There is systematic marginalization of students from these sections in the institutions of higher learning in different fields.
  2. Caste oppression has to be fought at all levels. In the vast rural areas, struggle against caste oppression taking class issues along with will pave the way for the mobilization along class lines of the people from different social groups. This needs painstaking work and some experience in welding issues of caste oppression with issues of class exploitation. For the toiling people, it is one and the same person who suffers from both- class exploitation and caste oppression. We should form special fora where-ever useful and feasible and integrate them with struggles on class issues. Our work in ZPSC is a good example. It works on class economic issues and relates to Dalits i.e. it takes up Dalit issues primarily for their land rights.

Attacks against Minorities

  1. Since its forging by British colonialists to maintain their rule over India, communalism has been a powerful weapon of the ruling classes to divide and divert the exploited and oppressed sections as well as in their bid for power or share of it. RSS-BJP had been formed in the period of rapid advance of the revolutionary communist movement throughout the world. It was founded by the most reactionary sections of the ruling classes who wished to train and arm a volunteer force against the people’s anti-colonial movement. RSS has maintained and still maintains armed formations. It was aimed to steer the majority community away from the anti-colonial and revolutionary movements and bring them under the sway of reaction. In the period of propaganda of ‘end of history’ and TINA in the wake of restoration of capitalism in China and dissolution of the erstwhile Soviet Union and beset with increasing contradictions in the country especially decline of ‘centrism’ of Congress and its increasing resort to soft Hinduism, ruling classes increasingly supported their most reactionary representative. RSS-BJP destroyed Babri Masjid to give a big blow to secularism and on the strength of communal polarization and rallying of upper castes under its banner in the wake of implementation of Mandal Commission recommendations. It led a coalition (NDA) to remain in power at the Centre from 1998 to 2004. During their stay they increased their nominees in state institutions and made a number of moves towards communal polarization, worst of them being organizing an anti-Muslim pogrom in Gujarat in 2002. RSS-BJP had adopted Gujarat as a laboratory for its Hindutva starting with attacks on Muslims and Christians in the villages. State sponsored orgy of mass killings, rapes, arson and destruction was let loose against Muslims in the state. This pogrom was used to communally consolidate majority community and this consolidation was used to shower favours on corporate. On these twin pillars arose the myth of Gujarat model of governance which propelled Modi to the leadership of BJP.
  2. RSS-BJP have put into practice their communal agenda where-ever they were in power. However, this practice was taken to greater heights in the most populous province of UP with its high percentage of upper castes and significant size of Muslims who could be painted as villains and made targets. Prior to 2014 elections, anti-Muslim violence was organized in Muzaffarnagar district of UP in 2013 to communally polarize elections in UP and on a larger scale throughout north India. Since coming to power in that state in 2017, RSS-BJP have set up their advanced laboratory in UP. They targeted all prominent Muslims, killed many Muslims in anti-Mafia campaigns, organized a large number of local level violent incidents against them. All possible avenues to communally polarize society were exploited and security forces were unleashed against minority community and an atmosphere of intolerance was created against all those standing against RSS-BJP Hindutva. A large number of progressives who stood against these communal attacks were also targeted. Names of the prominent activists were painted on the bill boards in the state capital for their support to anti-CAA-NRC-NPR movement. In the name of suppressing movement against CAA-NRC-NPR nearly 53 Muslims were killed by police and a naked reign of terror unleashed. State machinery has been totally infiltrated and subverted to further their reactionary interests. RSS-BJP Govt. in UP led by Yogi Adityanath has projected his communal polarization as model of ‘crime free’ development model- UP model. Though all RSS-BJP Govts. are resorting to use of bulldozers against activists from Muslim minority even recently in Nuh (Haryana), Yogi Govt. has implemented bulldozer raj systematically.
  3. While RSS-BJP, where-ever they are in power – in MP, Karnataka (where they ruled till recently)-take to communal polarization and wield it as political weapon for power, they have developed Assam in North East as another model backed by elite of Assamese upper caste Hindus, the dominant social group. In Assam they are targeting Muslims, largest proportional group outside J&K as enemies, as Bangladeshi infiltrators and responsible for all things wrong. This base in Assam they are using for domination over the North East. They have tried to make predominantly Hindu Meitei community as their base in Manipur. However, this short sighted pursuit in a diverse region where Christians constitute majority in several states and regions and this region sharing a long international border may be very risky. Hindutva protagonists have over-extended their reach compelled as they are to sow deeper and deeper communal discord to impose their fascist dictatorship over the country.
  4. RSS-BJP has been consistently demonizing Muslims to attack them. They were blamed for Corona pandemic, they are portrayed as criminals, they are targeted in the name of cow protection, even for rising prices of tomatoes; they are blamed for almost everything. Their social practices are shown to be backward while backward practices of majority religious community are glorified. Now their civil code is being threatened in the name of UCC while attacks on their lives and property have become routine. Routes of religious processions have become “routes of wrath”, pretexts for unleashing attacks by goons mobilized by ruling Hindutva outfits and police. Their places of worship are being attacked. A new wound is being opened through survey in Gyanwapi mosque in Benares and other places.
  5. Struggle against communalism especially majority communalism and its pernicious form Hindutva is an important part of struggle of the people of the country and revolutionary forces must play an important role in this struggle. For this building unity of people on common issues i.e. of the classes drawing different communities into it remains the principal task. Combating communal poison and confronting the attacks on minorities is an important task in this direction. While combating communalism of all hues, it must be understood that battle for secularism has to be fought among the masses, at present especially among the masses belonging to majority community. This struggle has to be multifaceted encompassing unity on class and mass issues, struggle in the ideological sphere against poisonous Hindutva including wide campaigns of exposure and education and united struggle against attack by communal goons against minorities.

Women Face Increasing Attacks

  1. Under RSS-BJP rule conditions of women have further gone down. Women should be half the population of the country but the sex ratio continues to remain against them. This is due to patriarchal preferences and practices across the country and patriarchy has further got strengthened under the rule of the BJP RSS Govt., a votary of Manuwad. All regressive practices find shelter under the cover of tradition. The slogan of “Beti Bachao- Beti Padhao” is meant to cover up policies which are helping to exclude more and more girls from formal education and more and more women from access to state health care facilities. Increasing impermanence of jobs across all sectors, including in professional sections, has hit working women harder as it deprives them of statutory maternity benefits and also forces them to work longer hours for lesser and unequal wages. Patriarchal practices have been strengthened; festivals with such connotations and all such traditions are promoted and glorified. The expression is most clear in the open protection given directly by the Central Govt. to cases of sexual harassment and sexual violence by state officials and by its own goons many of whom are elected representatives at various levels. RSS-BJP Govt. openly backed its own MP and WFI chief in the case of allegations of sexual harassment by well known women wrestlers who conducted a long protest which was suppressed.
  2. Muslim women have been specially targeted by this Govt. in the name of befriending them; thus has been effected the criminalization of triple talaq and the arrest of all men who violated Child Marriage Act in Assam. Such steps have snatched breadwinners from Muslim families. The right to wear traditional hijab was attacked in a manner that has led to significant number of Muslim girls being excluded from mainstream education. Similarly “bahu beti izzat” slogan of Muzaffarnagar is now refashioned into anti love jihad campaigns and even laws. This is a crackdown on the right of young men and women of all communities to marry by choice. Along with attack on Right to Choice, is the spurt in killings of boys and girls who violate caste and communal norms. Women must be organized on a large scale against patriarchy. Our women organizations must have wide mass base, bring women out into mass movements against patriarchy and train activists among the women to address both the questions of the day and also how patriarchy is to be fought. They must also tap into the rising anger against patriarchy in wide sections of intellectual women too, and win them for the fight against the system which sustains patriarchy and for a new social order.
  3. Present Hindutva rulers have announced their intention to impose Uniform Civil Code (UCC) over the people of the country. The most ardent champions of UCC have been staunchest opponents of any changes in the Hindu family law, any dilution of its patriarchal base. Civil laws of all communities have patriarchal aspects which must be fought against and struggle for such changes should be built and developed. Emphasis of UCC is on uniformity and not against patriarchy. This majoritarian Hindutva project must be rejected and opposed. Women of all communities have been struggling against patriarchal aspects of their civil laws and not for a uniformly regressive law. UCC is another name for imposing Hindu code on religious minorities- Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, on Tribals who have their traditional laws governing these aspects which are more progressive in many respects. UCC is also targeted against different family law practices among Hindus in different parts of the country and even among different social groups in the same region as well. Struggle is for progressive civil codes rather than imposition of uniform civil code. Such imposition will further worsen conditions of women especially women of minority religious groups. If UCC is meant to be voluntary as was expressed by Dr. Ambedkar in the Constituent Assembly, then such an Act already exists in the form of Special Marriages Act and can be further improved.

Attacks Against Tribals

  1. Tribals have become a special target of attack of RSS-BJP to enrich their corporate mentors. Mineral resources of their lands are special attraction for foreign and domestic corporate. Mining of coal and mineral resources entails large scale displacement of tribals. Open cast mining which is cheaper and more extractive is becoming the norm because it is more profitable for corporate despite its being destructive of tribals’ lives and environment. Tribals have been biggest victims of displacement in the name of development. RSS-BJP Govt. is targeting whatever recognition of their traditional rights is secured to tribals by Acts like PESA, FRA and LARR. The provisions of FRA have not been properly implemented, now these are being summarily done away with. While rules regarding environmental clearance for projects have been relaxed, new Forest Conservation Rules 2022 do away with implementation of FRA as a pre-requisite for clearance of projects. The Govt. has amended Forest Conservation Act (FCA) to exempt projects inside 100 kms of the border in the name of national security, allowing land use in areas of struggle in the name of curbing Left Wing Extremism and also land use for eco-tourism and forest safaris; even changing the very definition of forests. New FCA has freed nearly one fifth of forest land (deemed forests) from Conservation which will allow easy acquisition by corporate without mandatory clearance. Large tracts of tribal lands are being taken over by the Govt. in the name of making wild life sanctuaries, constructing very wide highways displacing tribals and destroying ecology by blasting tunnels in the mountains and for corporate plantation among the hills. All these are a big blow to tribals who constitute 8.5% of the population and nearly 40 crore people are wholly or partially dependent on forest and its produce. Biodiversity Act 2023 will facilitate private companies to establish commercial crop farms on forest land.
  2. RSS has since long been working among tribals to assimilate them into Hindu society obviously at its lowest rung. Their twin purpose is to pave the way for exploitation and expropriation of the resources of the region by corporate and to wean the tribals away from the path of struggle for defense of their lands, livelihood and identity. Tribal areas have since long been arena of struggle against loot and plunder; against exploitation and oppression; for land, livelihood and identity. Most of these struggles have been led by communist revolutionaries and have been target of special attack by the Govt. Deployment of paramilitary forces, police and paramilitary camps, large scale arrests and use of UAPA and fake encounters have been common.RSS is trying to erase their history of struggle against colonial rulers and exploiters and negate their martyrs in these struggles. There is systemic work of Brahmanization of the tribals erasing their traditional religions and propagating new religious symbols accompanied with material benefits. Brahmanization also entails enlisting elements from among tribals to propagate their communalism while daily oppression and humiliation of tribals continues. Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram and other frontal organizations of RSS are trying to Hinduize them and targeting Christian tribals. This is apparent from the very RSS nomenclature of forest tribes as ‘vanvasi’ who differ only in that they live in forests. Struggle against RSS penetration has to be waged at all levels including cultural level.
  3. Among the four large tracts where tribals have significant population, they constitute proportionally large number in North East. These tribals were brought under Indian Admn. by colonial rulers. They are sought to be forcibly integrated. Many of these tribal groups have embraced Christianity. RSS-BJP rulers, besides usurping their lands, are also targeting them for religious reasons- churches have been destroyed on a large scale in Manipur. Tribals are also opposing imposition of UCC.
  4. Govt. is doing nothing to develop the language and culture of tribals. Funds allocated for developments of tribals in Tribal Sub-plan are not utilized.
  5. Tribals have been fighting back these attacks. They have been fighting back attacks on their land, livelihood and identity. They have been fighting against usurping of their lands in the name of different schemes and projects. They have often forced the Govts. to acknowledge their struggles like struggle for podu lands, struggle against changes in SNTA and CNTA in Jharkhand, struggle against anti-tribal changes of Regulation 2 of Odisha Land Reforms Act, and the like in the recent past. They have been fighting against attacks on their lives and property in North East. Struggles of this large section of the people of the country- tribals and other traditional forest dwellers- need to be built up for which objective and subjective conditions are there. Their struggles are a very important part of the struggle for New Democratic Revolution.

Protect Environment

  1. Foreign and domestic corporate are mainly responsible for damage to the environment and biodiversity. While paying lip-service to protecting environment and guarding against climate change, RSS-BJP Govt. is implementing policies cutting down forests and opening them to corporate plunder. In the name of afforestation (CAMPA Act) it is making gardens and not developing forests. Its unscientific emphasis on use of chemicals in agriculture has polluted soil while lack of industrial regulation has polluted the air. But Govt. attacks tribals and peasants in the name of protecting environment.

Attacks on Education, Neglect of Health Services and Rising Unemployment

  1. The present Govt. has intensified attacks on Education. In some respect, it is a continuation of attacks by UPA Govt. Basis of these attacks is in WTO’s GATS. It is aimed at commercializing Education, confining Education or at least Higher education to a certain class and promoting Distance education for children of majority of people thus distancing them from Education. RSS-BJP has added Saffronization to Education thereby instilling communal virus through text books at a very early age. RSS-BJP Govt. is diluting studies in natural and social sciences and promoting only skill development to make them suitable to enter work force. It is being done from very early age. Development of scientific temper is being discouraged. RSS-BJP is also poisoning the minds of young by teaching them distorted history and discouraging all avenues of critical thinking. This is in service of their fascist drive which necessitates manufacturing of history and obedience without questioning.
  2. With higher fees for Higher education, students from affluent background predominate among students and those from poorer sections have mostly taken huge loans to pursue Education. Education in private medical colleges is so expensive that parents prefer to send their wards abroad for Education. Secondly, in several states, Govt. education at primary and secondary level has almost collapsed leading to mushrooming of coaching institutes. In fact these coaching institutes have become the main centres of student protests as highlighted by the recent outbursts of students in Bihar and UP. Due to higher fees and fierce competition, pressure on the students from middle class families has sharply increased. This has led to severe psychological problems and rise in suicides. On the other hand standard of education is quite low despite tremendous improvement in material available. Govt. emphasis is to use Education for extraction of profits by big money and Education Mafia. Govt. allocation for Education has been declining. Primary schools are being closed/ merged especially in rural areas including tribal areas. RSS-BJP Govt. is intent on teaching useless material which neither equips the students to face the challenges of Higher education nor to make any meaningful contribution to society.
  3. Unemployment and gross underemployment have emerged as very serious problems. Crores of educated youth have no employment not to mention uneducated or minimally educated youth. Problem of Unemployment makes itself felt in different spheres and in different ways. The question of increasing employment opportunities is linked to the very economic policies pursued by the ruling classes and hence it is also part of the general movement of the people. However, there are concrete issues facing the educated youth like fleecing them in the name of employment through higher fees for their application and high expenses for appearing for exams. Vacant posts are not filled which is one of the demand of youth. In fact vacancies are being abolished and replaced with contract or term employment. Repeated big movements of youth have broken out over railway jobs being restricted or over Agnipath scheme which also felled permanent employment.
  4. Unemployment is a big individual demoralization and social handicap; energies of youth are vital for revolutionizing and building the society. Ruling classes, while doing nothing to generate Employment, channelize energies of youth into chauvinist channels. They are encouraged to undertake pointless yatras, organized into goonda gangs, drug abuse is promoted. RSS-BJP is drawing vigilante groups from among unemployed youth for attacks against minorities and Dalits and for acting as volunteers in their moral police. Faced with the dire situation of unemployment and near impossibility of finding suitable jobs, youth especially educated youth are forced to seek employment abroad, the choice depending on the money they can afford to shell out. Peasant families sell their land for the future of their children. Yet youth are tricked by fraudulent agents, have to endure countless hardships and even die in the process of migrating abroad.
  5. A large number of people die every year of diseases in which malnutrition plays an important role. A large number die of communicable diseases which have been eliminated in a large number of countries. Profession linked diseases like Silicosis continue to take a heavy toll. But the Govt. has been neglecting providing Health care to vast majority of the country, spending very little on Health budget, which accounts for only 0.8% of the GDP. Instead of Health care being treated as a right, it is being insurance based. The abysmal condition has been exposed when a large number of people died during Corona pandemic due to lack of Health care facilities. The whole emphasis is on opening expensive corporate hospitals and encouraging Medical tourism. A number of medical colleges have been opened without adequate facilities and faculty. Even the curriculum is being filled with non-scientific material. Entire Education is in doldrums, emphasis being on infrastructure development which brings money to contractors and those handing out contracts. Right to Health care has emerged an important arena for mobilizing the people.
  6. While RSS-BJP has focused on discouraging and distorting Research in social sciences as a part of their Hindutva project, Research in natural sciences and bio medical research is being neglected and misdirected. In place of scientific research, obscurantism is being encouraged. Funds for Research are cut and research jobs are made contractual. RSS-BJP Govt. is totally careless about the future of the country.

Abridging the Democratic Rights

  1. Present situation is marked by all round offensive of fascist forces, attempts to abridge the democratic rights to the extent these exist under the present legal framework. Govt. has framed false cases against democratic rights activists and intellectuals and incarcerated them in jails. Several Bhima Koregaon accused are still languishing in jail while Father Stan Swamy was driven to his death in jail. UAPA has come as a favoured instrument of RSS-BJP Govt. for this attack. In the course of suppression of people’s movement against CAA-NRC-NPR UAPA was foisted against a number of activists under trumped up charges. Difficulty in securing bail under this Act has been the main reason for employing this draconian law. Supreme Court too has laid down stringent conditions (Watali judgement) for granting bail in UAPA cases. A large number of activists are framed under UAPA while a number of tribals also face wrath of this black law. Even otherwise criminal law is being abused against activists.
  2. RSS-BJP Govt. has made three Criminal Codes which carry forward their attacks against people. Though they are mostly reproduction of old criminal laws, changes have been made to further abridge rights of those accused of criminal offences by the police.
  3. There is a general clampdown on protests. Even in the capital, Delhi, severe restrictions are placed on protests in terms of long period of notice, number of protesters, etc. severely restricting democratic space. Drones are being used against people’s movements. Cases are routinely registered for holding protests. There is a growing trend of registering frivolous cases under criminal defamation at a number of places by RSS activists to harass their opponents in different fields, Courts entertain such frivolous petitions causing a lot of harassment of the persons. Only a few manage to get relief from the higher judiciary.
  4. Govt. has been clamping down on the people’s sources of information in the event of any protest or movement. Ban on internet has been routine during all protests so that news of repression and Govt. action or inaction does not spread. All this is done in the name of checking spread of rumours, but in fact this leads to wide propagation of fake news. India has seen maximum internet shutdowns in the world in the year 2022. It has lasted for years in J&K and is continuing since May 3, 2023 in Manipur.
  5. The present situation calls for building and developing struggle for democratic rights and against attacks on these rights. Civil Liberties and Democratic Rights Organizations should be strengthened and vast sections of intelligentsia and activists should be mobilized to rally broad masses in support of these campaigns. At political level as well, efforts should be made to mobilize revolutionary and democratic forces and a broad-based campaign should be taken up.

Misuse of Central Agencies

  1. While UAPA and other laws are misused against activists of revolutionary organizations and people’s movements, CBI/IT/ED machinery is unleashed against leaders of parliamentary opposition parties and media houses. Attempts are made to silence critical media through raids; opposition party leaders are silenced or made to defect to BJP to save themselves from prosecution. RSS-BJP has taken this misuse to a higher level, splitting the parties and changing govts. Earlier money bags were used for the purpose, now CBI/IT/ED notices are tagged to money bags. These central agencies have become agents of delivering “opposition mukt Bharat”.
  2. RSS-BJP game plan is to deprive parliamentary opposition parties of any position to electorally challenge them. Through electoral bonds, RSS-BJP have gained all information of contributions to parliamentary opposition parties and thereby ability to stop big contributors from contributing to these opposition parties. BJP has got over 70% of all the contributions through electoral bonds. Now through unleashing CBI/ED/IT machinery RSS-BJP is hitting at sources of income of the leaders of these opposition parties. RSS-BJP plan is to not leave them in any position to compete, given the role of money power in the present election system.

Media and Culture

  1. Mainstream print and electronic media is owned or controlled by corporate whose major section supports RSS-BJP. Adani has bought controlling stakes in NDTV while several major electronic channels are owned by Mukesh Ambani. For international news these media mostly reproduce, take material or have tie-ups with western media giants. For domestic audience they mostly try to shape public opinion and frame narratives in support of RSS-BJP, deepening communal polarization and fomenting communal hatred, serving as lapdogs rather than watchdogs. Issues affecting the people are ignored. Social media, whose reach and role has increased many fold over the last decade, is sought to be controlled by use/abuse of law enforcement agencies, framing new laws, foisting cases and targeting the journalists who take a stand against the govt. thus restricting its use by progressive forces.
  2. The present turn toward fascism should not come as a surprise given the narrative spread over decades through movies and TV serials glorifying the security forces and vilifying all politics; painting law as an impediment to controlling crime and showing that bureaucrats, police and security agencies can eliminate crime/ serve the people if not checked by the elected representatives. Individuals are portrayed as liberators while movements are portrayed as self-serving. This cultural pollution has been going on for a long time and has built support for fascist forces. During RSS-BJP regime, mainstream media and films have become vehicles of chauvinist, jingoist, majoritarian and revivalist propaganda, those diverting from these themes are targeted, trolled, threatened and prosecuted to fall in line. A lot of so-called historical movies which have little or no base in history, mostly outright distortions, are being made which attempt to make Hindutva narrative as history. Simultaneously, mythology is dished out as history for this narrative. What is being done through domination of historical studies in academic field is being done through movies in cultural field.

Higher Judiciary

  1. Higher judiciary especially Supreme Court has been inconsistent in upholding constitutional rights of the people. Apex Court has at times stood up for individual liberty even expressing anger in some cases of violations but has not stood up against majoritarianism. Its Babri Masjid verdict, besides several others, is a pointer to succumbing to majoritarianism. It has upheld right to judicial review and opposed Govt. appointing judges. On secularism, social justice and federalism it has generally interpreted the Constitution in a way that suits majoritarianism. Fascist drive of RSS-BJP is aimed at controlling it completely including appointment of judges.

Suppression of Minority Nationalities and Attacks on Federalism

  1. People of J&K have been under direct military rule since last four years. On August 5, Article 370 was virtually annulled, Article 367 was amended, Article 35A was repealed and the very state of J&K dissolved into two union territories. Challenge to this patently undemocratic act was not even heard by the apex Court for four years, coming now for hearing. Despite tall claims of RSS-BJP govt., alienation of the people of J&K has only increased further. Govt. has not restored state of J&K and not held elections. On the contrary, Union Govt. has embarked on fresh delimitation of constituencies increasing more constituencies in Hindu majority Jammu region. Along with it, attempts are being made to change demography of the state entitling those from outside the state who have worked in the Govt. and security agencies of the state to settle permanently in the state.
  2. Abrogation of Article 35A which limited rights of outsiders to the jobs in the state and right to own lands, has caused widespread anger among all the people of J&K. People of Jammu and Laddakh regions are also agitating for restoration of Article 35A. A movement in Laddakh is continuing since a long time. People of the region who had in 2019 initially supported Union Govt. move, have turned against the present situation and consider old situation better.
  3. The whole propaganda of RSS-BJP on J&K is patently false with regard to present condition as well as past. An official response to an RTI enquiry revealed that of the total civilians killed in J&K from 1990 to 2021 numbering 1724, 89 were Kashmiri pundits and the rest were mostly Muslims, some Sikhs. A similar propaganda of large scale destruction of temples in J&K was done in 1989- period which was found to be wrong in a detailed documented enquiry by PUCL.
  4. North Eastern states are also facing a very difficult situation under RSS-BJP rule and their Hindutva project. Talks between Union Govt. and NSCN (IM), dominant Naga organization have reached the brink of collapse due to intransigence of Union Govt. and its backtracking on the promises.
  5. Manipur has witnessed violent attacks since May 3, 2023 including killings, burning down of houses, gangrapes of Kuki women. In these attacks Kuki tribals have borne the brunt. Attacks on Meiteis are reported in hill areas. Proposal to include dominant Meitei community among Scheduled Tribes has precipitated this violence. In Manipur, RSS-BJP wish to consolidate their power through Meiteis, who are predominantly Hindus, pitting them against tribals who are predominantly Christians. Central Govt. also wants to hand over forest land to corporate. Here RSS-BJP’s anti-tribal policy and Hindutva project of targeting religious minorities coincide. Tribals’ right over their traditional land must be safeguarded; resolution of the problem also needs separate administration arrangement for tribals.
  6. Union govt. attacks on tribals, religious minorities and efforts to impose UCC has created unrest throughout North East. Tribal groups inhabiting the region have their affinities and inter-relations and these have been disturbed by RSS-BJP and will, in turn, impact RSS-BJP game plan for the region. There have been big demonstrations in Mizoram against attacks on Kukis. Naga organizations have also condemned attacks on Kuki women.
  7. RSS-BJP has been systematically undermining rights of states. While imposition of GST has severely restricted states’ ability to raise resources, Union Govt. has encroached on their rights on law and order through extension of rights and scope of NIA. Area of operation of BSF has been increased to 50 kms. from international border. Education is increasingly centrally monitored. Control over river waters have been totally taken away from states through Dam Safety Act, though river waters is a state subject. Similarly agricultural laws were passed in violation of the Constitution as agriculture is a state subject. State governors are openly working as RSS-BJP functionaries in opposition ruled states. Their offices are openly used to dislodge opposition govts. in the states. An office which was meant to be a figure head representative of the Union Govt. has become an active centre for RSS-BJP. Union Govt. is moving to deprive Delhi Territorial Administration govt. of the rights given under the Act granting this status and is depriving them rights over the services as well, even to the extent recognized by the Supreme Court too. This negates the grant of limited statehood to Delhi which was a product of longstanding demand in Delhi.

Fascist Drive of RSS-BJP

  1. Drive by RSS-BJP fascist rulers to impose fascist system over the country is intensifying. However, resistance to this drive is also growing. Both of these are operating on the base of deepening socio-economic crisis in the country and worsening conditions of the people. Drive of the fascist rulers has reached a critical juncture.
  2. Ruling classes of the country have hardly and hesitatingly respected the democratic rights of the people and fascist repression on the people’s movements especially revolutionary struggles has been routine.
  3. Advent of RSS-BJP to power was paved by the need of the ruling classes to abridge the existing democratic rights of the people and thereby pre-empt the eruption of mass movements by leading the people into blind alley of communal chauvinism. Hence most reactionary sections of the ruling classes prepared the way for RSS-BJP to get clear majority in 2014 in view of growing resentment of the people against their worsening conditions and rampant corruption in high places.
  4. Support from major sections of corporate, foreign and domestic, and of landlords and rural elite have been instrumental in bringing RSS-BJP to power. Corporate with its control over media and hence on the narrative fed to the people have played a very important role. Landlords, most of whom belong to Hindu upper castes, and rural elite support suppression of oppressed sections of people and their struggles. Here class and caste questions get intertwined. These sections, anti-democratic by their very nature, provide social base to the fascist drive in rural areas which are major part of India. The upper middle classes, most of whom belong to Hindu upper castes, also get swayed by communal mobilization and become the base for this fascist drive at least for a time.
  5. The course of rise of fascism in the country has been marked by Indian characteristics. Fascism has different trajectories and also different features in different countries depending on special socio-economic and political conditions of different countries as was formulated by Dimitrov in his famous thesis on fascism. India is a vast, diverse and backward country dominated by imperialist powers. India is multi-religious, multinational, multi-linguistic, multi-ethnic, caste ridden society. These special features influence rise of fascism in India. State of inter-imperialist contradiction also influences drive towards fascism in India. However, two aspects of fascism are present in all its forms and trajectories of its growth. Firstly it is terroristic method of rule of the ruling classes which involves negation of existing democratic rights. This means that the ruling classes would like to change the existing form of rule, forced by either growth of the people’s movements especially revolutionary workers’ struggles as was the case in Europe after First World War and victory of Great October Socialist Revolution; or by the need to change the form of rule to facilitate intensification of exploitation and oppression needed by the ruling classes and whose character or speed could and would bring about upsurge in people’s movements i.e. a sort of pre-emptive strike by the ruling classes. Second important aspect is that this terrorist method of rule is backed by and stands on the base of chauvinist mobilization of the people. This mobilization is aimed at whipping up national chauvinism and jingoism targeting imaginary enemies often targeting a section of the people of the country itself, projecting them as responsible for the problems faced by the people. And this chauvinism is portrayed as nationalism thus embedding this chauvinism in the discourse of nationalism. It serves an important purpose of the ruling class sections backing fascism; that of obfuscating their increasing loot and plunder while projecting enemies against whom the anger of the people is to be directed. Selection of such imaginary enemies is made by distorting past and present; misrepresenting and misinterpreting the past and misdirecting the present. Thus the exploiters and oppressors of the people are projected as their benefactors and symbols of this new type of nationalism.
  6. It is the for the latter requirement i.e. of chauvinist mobilization that most reactionary section of ruling classes backed RSS-BJP to make it “party of governance” in the period of deepening economic crisis and intensifying contradictions of the present system. In the context of deepening economic crisis of imperialist system and that of the economy in India and the need of the corporate- foreign and domestic – to increase surplus extraction or simply loot and plunder of the resource of India that major section of ruling classes rallied behind RSS-BJP when Indian economy went into slowdown as the effect of great recession beginning from 2008 onwards and then ruling Congress led UPA was discredited due to exposure of major scams. However, it was just not replacement of one govt. by another but RSS-BJP getting a clear majority in Lok Sabha. It was a first time since 1989 that a Party got a clear majority. Thus the quarter century long era of coalition govts. was brought to an end. Before that RSS had been in power at the Centre when its political outfit –Jan Sangh- had been part of the ruling Janata Party immediately after Emergency (as a junior partner) or as BJP leading the NDA govts. from 1998 to 2004 (as a senior partner yet dependent on allies for its survival in power). For the first time in 2014, RSS through its electoral arm- BJP, had obtained a clear majority and thus full control over executive power.
  7. While RSS-BJP anchor their fascist drive on anti-minority especially anti-Muslim plank, worsening conditions of people and their rising struggles are increasing both the necessity of imposing a fascist system and also the difficulties in this path. While they are condemning election promises made by the opposing ruling class parties terming them “freebies”, they are forced to announce their own so-called freebies. Moreover, with the RSS cadre machinery and their sway over official machinery, they are electorally weaponizing the welfare schemes. But the growing restiveness of the people is much in evidence.
  8. In this backdrop, RSS-BJP’s fascist drive has come to an important juncture, a sort of inflection point in Indian politics. We can see the two phases they have traversed in their journey and now they are embarking on the third and possibly final stage of imposing fascist system over the country.
  9. With their advent to power in 2014 with a clear majority in Lok Sabha, they got monopoly over executive power of the Union Govt. RSS-BJP launched what can be broadly termed as a phase of fascist offensive. In this period, they did not have control over all the organs of the state, not even on the legislative agenda having no majority in Rajya Sabha. In this period, they suppressed people’s struggles, intensified their campaign of communal polarization and intensified attacks on the progressive sections. In this period they also concentrated on monopolizing control over education especially historical studies & social sciences and research institutions specially targeting progressive students’ and teachers’ bodies. In this period they appointed RSS or RSS friendly persons to different positions and in different bodies and different institutions. In 2016 they tested their ability to mobilize the people on false pretense. Demonetization of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 notes was not to get black money out but to help corporate. However, they put false spin on the issue despite over a hundred people dying standing in the queues. Over this period, they increased their strength in different states especially the most populous state of Uttar Pradesh, and thereby increased their strength in Rajya Sabha. Taking 2014 victory of RSS-BJP as an aberration, ruling class opposition parties merely waited for the parliamentary election of 2019. In that period, communist revolutionary forces and other progressive & democratic forces were in the struggle against this fascist offensive. The main onslaught of the RSS-BJP was against the progressive forces. Bhima Koregaon became an important example of such attacks in which a large number of activists and intellectuals were implicated in a false case.
  10. RSS-BJP whipped up jingoist frenzy on the back of their communal polarization, utilizing Pulwama and Balakote. On this strength, they came back to power with increased majority in Lok Sabha. Opposition parties of the ruling classes which had failed to stand with the people underestimating the strength of fascist forces and their communal polarization, could not dislodge RSS-BJP Govt. led by Modi. Not only BJP increased its seats in Lok Sabha but also its vote share which rose to nearly 37% from 30.8% in 2014. In this scenario a number of regional parties of the ruling classes caved into the RSS-BJP strength. State institutions also succumbed to RSS-BJP. This created a new situation. With its improved strength in Rajya Sabha and support to its agenda by some regional ruling class parties, RSS-BJP gained control over the legislative agenda. Ruling fascist forces moved to implement their fascist agenda. Soon after 2019 elections RSS-BJP struck at J&K rendering Article 370 ineffective and abrogating Article 35A of the Constitution. They also dissolved state of J&K into two Union Territories. With this move, the rule of fascist forces entered a new phase of all round offensive. Attack on J&K was followed by criminalization of triple talaq, Supreme Court judgment on Babri Masjid awarded the whole of the land on which Babri Masjid had stood to Ram Janmbhoomi Trust. And then came the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) which coupled with NRC-NPR was to formally reduce the large Muslim minority of India into second class citizens. This fulfilled the postulate of RSS ideologues that Muslims have no rights in the country and should be content to live at the mercy of majority religious community. In between there were measures like changes in the environmental and forest laws and regulations aimed at handing over mineral rich land to the foreign and domestic corporate. There were regular attempts to sharpen the organs of repression- both in terms of strengthening the security forces as well as giving further teeth to repressive laws like extending the scope of UAPA to cover even individuals.
  11. RSS-BJP used fascist measures to crush the movement against CAA-NRC-NPR. Abusing the condition of rapidly spreading Corona pandemic, which they used to create scare and panic, they stamped out the pockets of resistance in different cities e.g. Shaheen Bagh in Delhi which had emerged a symbol of resistance to Hindutva fascist forces. Vibrancy of the movement was replaced by silence of graveyard covered with the cries of the workers forced to walk thousands of kms on foot. Fear was sought to be instilled among the people with even Supreme Court saying that it was not the time to determine fundamental rights.
  12. It was in this imposed eerie silence that fascist rulers came up with their fierce attacks against the people in the economic arena and in the service of corporate in the form of three pro-corporate farm acts and three labour codes (one having been made in 2019). This attack on peasantry was vigorously resisted through historic farmers’ struggle lasting for nearly one and a half years and forcing the obstinate RSS-BJP Govt. to withdraw the Acts. Besides beating back this pro-corporate attack, the glorious movement opened up democratic space. Later RSS-BJP Govt. tried to close down this space. This movement also brought forth an important lesson that people’s movements are the biggest force against March of fascism. This lesson has been reinforced by the movement of drivers against provisions of new Criminal Code.
  13. Faced with the growing resentment of the people, fascist RSS-BJP are embarking to impose fascist system in the country. For this they have to abolish the present constitutional framework if not formally at least in practice. It is difficult for the RSS-BJP to get such huge mandate to abolish the Constitution especially when the Constitution does not provide for convening Constituent Assembly; rather power to amend the Constitution has been given to the Parliament in the manner prescribed therein. This amending power of the Parliament has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to not include changing the “basic structure” of the Constitution. This basic structure has not been comprehensively defined and has been held by the Supreme Court in different ways from case to case. Hence, to abrogate the present constitutional framework if not formally, at least in practice, it is necessary to take control of the Supreme Court. Hence, the present attacks of RSS-BJP are directed to get control over this power of interpretation of the Constitution i.e. control over Supreme Court. Their earlier attempt in the form of NJAC was struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional. RSS-BJP are attacking Collegium system as they seek to get power to appoint judges so that they can appoint exclusively or mainly their own people. Compromising positions taken by the Court is one thing and having their own people in the Court is another. In the first case, situation changes when judiciary sees popular mood against the Govt. or some big people’s struggle comes forth.
  14. Another important concern for the RSS-BJP is their inability to rule over vast majority of the states. Today they rule over less than half of India (i.e. states representing less than half the seats in Parliament.) In several states they will take a long time to come to power. Fascist system is antithetical to federalism even to the extent it exists in India. Especially so for RSS-BJP whose Hindutva has limited appeal in several states/regions of the country. Even Indira Gandhi had dismissed the two opposition govts. in Tamilnadu and Gujarat while imposing Emergency in June 1975. So RSS-BJP are attacking the very rights of states, reducing them to mere municipalties; enlarging power of the Union Govt. in the areas of law and order, virtually monopolizing power of repression in the hands of the Union Govt. so that majority in a state is not crucial to launching fascist suppression. Enlarging the operation of NIA and bringing larger number of offences under its ambit, enlarging areas under the control of Central paramilitary forces are some of the measures which have been taken to attack the rights of states in the area of law and order. These are besides blackmailing state govts. through withholding/non-release of the funds due to them.
  15. Besides these two specific areas, a critical part in changing the Constitution is to change the electoral system. Fascists may come to power through elections but cannot impose fascist system/state without abolishing election system or at least altering it in a way that it becomes quite different from what it is today. Difficulties in this should be seen in the backdrop of rise of chauvinist movement in the country. Even without having requisite numbers, a situation may be created where parts of the state capitulate before fascists and they can change the system on the lines indicated above. To underestimate RSS-BJP drive to install fascism is not correct.
  16. The present situation outlines the dangers facing the people of the country; the drive of fascist forces and resistance of the people; both the challenges and opportunities for the people’s movement. Ruling classes or important sections of them impose fascism to crush the people’s movements; hence the situation which impels the ruling class sections towards fascism is also a pre-revolutionary situation, a situation pregnant with the possibilities of intensifying the struggles of different sections of people. The reactionary section of the ruling classes has chosen RSS-BJP fascists due to their ability to divert people’s anger. RSS-BJP are thoroughly opposed to pro-people legacy of the freedom movement of Indian people against British colonial rule. It has been repeatedly shown that RSS-BJP fascists have been continuously opposed to the people’s principles which had crystallized in the course of anti-colonial struggle. These five principles are anti-colonialism, democracy, secularism, social justice and federalism. Congress, as the main representative of big bourgeoisie and big landlord classes then, had been forced to reluctantly accept these principles and has been insincere in their implementation, affirming in theory and violating them in practice. RSS-BJP, which had opposed participation in anti-colonial struggle itself, is opposed to all these principles. Standing in favour of the rule of domestic reactionaries and management of Hindu upper castes in service of imperialism, RSS-BJP has taken systematic efforts to dismantle whatever was done in furtherance of these principles. They are attacking federalism, undermining rights of the states, they are undermining whatever democracy exists by undermining existing democratic institutions, they glorify their service of imperialism; they trample secularism under their saffron boots and negate social justice upholding Manuwad.
  17. RSS-BJP’s attempt to foist fascist system over the country must be opposed. In this, mobilizing the people into struggles on their issues especially on those issues where people’s rights are under attack by fascist rulers is very important. Equally important are building of people’s campaigns against attacks by fascist forces on political rights of the people and against minorities and oppressed sections. We should be prepared to take all measures, undertake or participate in different types of campaigns including in elections in accordance with the evaluation of the situation and its needs.

Ruling Class Opposition Parties

  1. Opposition parties of the ruling classes have also come under increasing attack as RSS-BJP move to impose fascism over the country. Central Agencies are used against leaders of these parties while Election Commission and central forces are used against them in elections. Moves for these parties to come together have gained momentum due to all round attacks of RSS-BJP and in the backdrop of rising disillusionment and anger among the people.
  2. Most of these parties are regional parties or parties with base mainly confined to one or some regions. Most of these parties, barring ‘Left’ parties, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and AAP, have come into existence from the breakup of Janata Dal or breaking away from Congress. With RSS-BJP eating away at least the base of most of the anti-Congress regional parties and decline of Left parties’ strength, a third front of ruling class parties challenging RSS-BJP is not electorally viable. Hence most of the opposition regional parties/ parties with regional base are joining hands with Congress in a proposed electoral alliance against RSS-BJP led alliance. Successive defeats of Congress in 2014 and 2019 have also prompted Congress to go for alliance. While they came together against RSS-BJP attacks, they chose to include “Developmental” in the name of their alliance thereby making clear that they plan to pit their developmental model against RSS-BJP developmental model. Main parties in this alliance support new economic policies ushered in by Manmohan Singh and Congress prides itself on being the pioneer of these policies. It is these pro-imperialist, pro-corporate policies of LPG which have led to deterioration of the conditions of the vast majority of the people of the country. People are fed up with all this talk of development which results in their impoverishment, destitution and displacement. It is clear that these parties do not represent any alternative economic policies. Their differences have been confined to some social welfare schemes within the overall framework of economic policies.
  3. On the question of changing the repressive framework ushered in or being used by RSS-BJP in their fascist drive, these parties have said nothing. They have not committed to repeal draconian laws like UAPA and agencies like NIA etc. No basic change should be expected from them. They are drawing support from beyond their base not for what they represent but mainly due to what they promise to replace i.e. RSS-BJP. On their part ruling RSS-BJP assembled a group of 38 parties on the very day opposition parties had met to announce their alliance. Of the regional parties or parties with regional base who have electoral strength, YSRCP, BJD, (running state govts.), BRS, TDP, BSP, JDS and Akali Dal have yet not taken sides though some of them are in talks with ruling RSS-BJP. Many of them may leave their stance to the post-election situation. Anyhow, this alliance of the opposition parties is mainly for elections with 2024 parliamentary election as their main aim. No struggle, not even clear position on main issues facing the people of the country like agrarian distress, informalization of labour, privatization of health and education, etc. is expected from this alliance.

Build Joint Struggles

  1. Intensification of attacks against people has led to fight back by different sections. But these struggles need mobilization of the people on a broad scale. Many of the attacks like those against peasantry, working class, tribals, students and even oppressed sections like minorities, Dalits, women are on all India scale and call for countrywide response. This is even though struggles against these attacks may be sharper in some states/regions. This makes joint struggle against these attacks necessary. On the other hand, in view of attacks by ruling RSS-BJP against all opposition including opposition from within ruling classes, some of these parties are compelled to join people’s struggles. This situation creates an opportunity for building joint struggles on wide plane. It helps to mobilize vast sections into struggle and for them to be educated in the course of struggle.
  2. Most of these struggles are taking place against attacks on different sections of people. Hence, most of the scope of joint struggle is more in various fronts through mass organizations. We must concretely analyze conditions of each section and also approach of different organizations in that section. We should decide our initiatives depending on the concrete situation of each section and each struggle. We must keep in mind that we are able to play a role, and extent of that role, basing on our strength and our initiative. Hence we should concretely and creatively combine our independent initiatives and our role in joint struggles. We should display both energy and patience depending on the demands of the situation.
  3. Most of these initiatives for joint struggle are forged at all India level. We must take initiative to be part of these struggle or movement oriented initiatives. We must appropriately combine firmness and flexibility keeping the aim of developing people’s struggle in front.
  4. A number of ruling class parties base themselves on the oppressed castes and draw their main support from them. They however use this support not for struggle against caste oppression but for gaining or sharing power. Once in power, they do not work against caste oppression though giving some opportunities to their cadres from these sections to keep their base intact. They even oppose coming together of different sections of oppressed castes except for their electoral purpose and do not support struggles of oppressed castes on land and on other economic issues and also for democratic rights most needed by these sections. These parties, though many of them were born in the mobilization against upper caste domination, have gradually become parties of one or a few oppressed castes. While developing struggle against caste oppression, unity with their cadres especially at lower levels may be necessary. But we should, in the course of struggle, make people aware of their character and approach to the issues of caste oppression. Similar situation arises in struggle against attacks on tribals where we may join hands with tribal fora which may have links with ruling class parties. Here too main emphasis should be to mobilize tribal masses in struggle.

Unification of Communist Revolutionaries

  1. The task of uniting communist revolutionaries is a vital task. We are being guided by the Policy Resolution adopted by 2004 Party Congress. We should concretely analyze the situation of revolutionary movement and organizations to make any advance towards unity of CR organizations. There is much divergence among the communist revolutionaries relating to their positions on programme, path and assessment of present situation. Further, CR organizations now have long existence as separate organizations following some sort of centralism i.e. functioning as organization. We have been following a policy of interacting with all CR organizations without applying any qualification or condition so long as they are perceived to be so, even when there are differences relating to programme and path. However, we have been pursuing unity with only such organizations which accept framework of NDR as programme and PPW as path. Only with such organizations unity is possible in immediate context. Overall unity i.e. uniting all the organizations upholding NDR programme and PPW path is not on the horizon at present as some of such organizations do not even see any scope of unity. With that being the scenario, purpose of partial unity should be to strengthen communist revolutionary organization i.e. unity should lead to increasing ability of united organization to build revolutionary struggle to whatever degree and to intervene in people’s movements.
  2. There are several organizations that qualify on the criteria for unity. However, they are used to separate functioning. Some of them see unity mainly as organizational unity which only transfers disagreements from political to organizational plane. Such a course, rather than imbuing the ranks with greater clarity and resolve which should result from unity, tend to embroil them in endless unprincipled organizational squabbles. We are in favour of sorting out differences necessary to function in a united organization. While we should adhere to such a course we should build broad forum of CR forces especially in view of growing danger of fascist dictatorship. Drawing upon the experiences of earlier initiatives, we should take part in such initiatives which united maximum possible CR forces and also help in building wide unity against RSS-BJP’s march towards fascism.


In view of the foregoing assessment of the present international and national situation, we place the following tasks before the Party:

  1. Build a wide country wide campaign against RSS-BJP design to impose fascism. Unite in and unite with maximum forces in this campaign. Strengthen democratic rights movement and mobilize masses for defense of democratic rights.
  2. Build militant struggle of tribals against attacks on their land, livelihood and identity and against displacement. Build struggle of tribals and OTFD for forest rights. Mobilize wide masses in militant struggles and build propaganda teams on the basic issues of tribals in the forest areas. Oppose delisting of Christian tribals.
  3. Build broad-based and militant struggle of different sections against attacks of RSS-BJP Govt.
    • Build Peasant Struggles for full procurement on MSP, for waiving of debts, for cheaper inputs, against corporate penetration in agriculture. Fight for sustainable, nature friendly and peasant friendly agriculture.
    • Build Workers movement against 4 Labour Codes and for securing rights of unorganized workers.
    • Build Women’s movement against patriarchy including Manuwad. Oppose attempts at imposing UCC; fight for progressive changes in family law.
    • Build Students’ and Teachers’ movement against NEP 2020, against privatization, commercialization and saffronization of education. Struggle for free, quality and scientific education and against dual education. Restore Education to the State List of the Constitution, brought into Concurrent list through 42nd Fight for promotion of scientific temper.
    • Build movement of Youth against unemployment. Campaign among youth against drug abuse and social evils.
    • Build struggle against exploitation by lending agencies. Build struggle against microfinance companies.
  4. Build the militant struggles of landless and poor peasants for land and for occupying different types of lands. Intensify struggle for distribution of land. Resist attacks of landlords and mobilize peasant masses against such attacks. Fight for implementation of minimum wages for agricultural labourers. Build struggle for wage increase and proper implementation of MNREGS including social audit.
  5. Build struggle against caste oppression and discrimination in various forms. Develop struggles of oppressed castes on their basic class issues.
  6. Oppose attacks against minorities and unite to defend them from these attacks. Expose Hindutva ideology. Oppose discrimination against religious minorities and oppose attacks on their places of worship. Build movement for people’s progressive and democratic culture.
  7. Oppose oppression of national minorities. Mobilize to demand immediate restoration of Article 370 and Article 35A, end to Union Govt. rule over J&K, restoration of democratic rights, release of all political prisoners, end to suppression of publications and realization of their democratic aspirations. Demand progress in talks with Nagas, respecting the agreements reached with NSCN(IM). Support separate administration for tribals (including in Manipur) where they inhabit contiguous large areas. Support Laddakhis’ struggle for inclusion in Schedule VI of the Constitution.
  8. Mobilize the people against undermining constitutional rights of states. Take programmes in favour of Federalism.
  9. Take concrete efforts to unite communist revolutionaries in a single party. Develop close relations with CR organizations. Develop Forum of CR forces for coordinating their efforts in struggle against fascism.
  10. Oppose imperialist military alliances (NATO).Oppose Ukraine war, in essence an inter-imperialist war resulting from NATO expansion and Russian aggression. Oppose danger of world war. Expose increasing militarization, imperialist infiltration & subversion and fascicization.
  11. Support struggle of nationalities for their national aspirations. Oppose Zionist Israel’s genocidal war against Palestinians and support Palestinians’ struggle to save their national identity and to realize their national aspirations.
  12. Forge close relations with ML parties in different countries. Work for and participate in worldwide protests against attacks on democratic rights, attacks against revolutionary movement and attacks on the working class.

All India Party Congress,

CPI(ML)-New Democracy

April, 2024